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The etiology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is closely related to apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. These defects in NP cells are induced by excessive external stressors such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines. Recently, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to repair(More)
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has recently been identified as an itch-specific neuropeptide in the spinal sensory system in mice, but there are no reports of the expression and distribution of GRP in the trigeminal sensory system in mammals. We characterized and compared GRP-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) with those in the rat(More)
A major question is whether exposure to mixtures of low-dose endocrine disruptors (EDs) having different action mechanisms affects neurodevelopment differently than exposure to EDs individually. We therefore investigated the effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to three typical EDs - bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), and(More)
UNLABELLED In 1976, men who were exposed to the highest concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) after an explosion at a chemical plant near Seveso, Italy, produced more girls than boys. However, few studies have examined the possibility that the exposure of laboratory animals to TCDD, especially that of males, could lead to a lower(More)
Neonicotinoids, which were developed in the 1990 s as an insecticide having selective toxicity, were later found to cause reproductive abnormalities in experimental animals. In Japan there is an attempt to preserve endangered animals, including the Japanese crested ibis, and there is a question of whether neonicotinoids affect the reproduction of this bird,(More)
AIMS AND BACKGROUND In several neoplastic diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) immunosuppression is correlated with disease stage, progression and outcome. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enhances tumor growth in HCCs. The present study analyzed the correlation between local immune responses and COX-2(More)
AIMS To investigate the precise mechanisms underlying the action of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, we evaluated the direct effects of synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells, with particular emphasis on the expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme P450scc. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the(More)
Fetal exposure to dioxins and related compounds is known to disrupt normal development of the midbrain dopaminergic system, which regulates behavior, cognition and emotion. The toxicity of these chemicals is mediated mainly by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling. Previously, we identified a novel binding motif of AhR, the AhR-responsive element III(More)
Recent animal experiments confirmed that paternal 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure decreases the sex ratio of offspring at birth without altering litter size. However, the timing of this decrease remained unclear. Male mice were administered TCDD at 7-12 weeks of age and mated with non-treated females. The Y-bearing/X-bearing sperm ratio(More)