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Theanine was formed from glutamic acid and ethylamine by coupling the reaction of glutamine synthetase (GS) of Pseudomonas taetrolens Y-30 with sugar fermentation of baker's yeast cells as an ATP-regeneration system. Theanine formation was stimulated by the addition of Mn2+ to the mixture for the coupling. The addition of Mg2+ was less effective. In a(More)
The utilization of shrimp shellfish waste as a substrate for solid-state cultivation of a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus sp. S1-13, was investigated. The organism was selected from among 220 isolates based on the productivity of its chitinolytic enzyme (chitinase), which might reflect microbial growth. The enzyme was produced only when the organism was(More)
In a mixture containing γ-glutamyl donor (donor) and γ-glutamyl acceptor (acceptor), the glutaminase of Pseudomonas nitroreducens IFO 12694 simultaneously catalyzed a γ-glutamyl transfer reaction and hydrolysis of the donor. The variation of the activities responding to the concentration of glutathione and glycylglycine indicated that the enzyme might be(More)
Oligosaccharides derived from cell wall of fungal pathogens induce host primary immune responses. To understand fungal strategies circumventing the host plant immune responses, cell wall polysaccharide localization was investigated using fluorescent labels during infectious structure differentiation in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.(More)
Saccharification of chitin was performed in a suspension (mash) of a solid-state culture of chitinase-producing Aspergillus sp. Sl-13 with acid-treated shellfish waste as a substrate. The conditions for the saccharifying reaction and the solid-state cultivation were examined from the viewpoint of saccharification in the mash. Optimum cultivation conditions(More)
Compact solid-state sources of terahertz (THz) radiation are being sought for sensing, imaging, and spectroscopy applications across the physical and biological sciences. We demonstrate that coherent continuous-wave THz radiation of sizable power can be extracted from intrinsic Josephson junctions in the layered high-temperature superconductor(More)
In a suspension of solid-state culture of Aspergillus sp. S1-13 containing a lactic acid-treated crab shell as the substrate, the saccharification of chitin in the shell proceeded to form N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc): the culture was the source of chitin and chitinases. The analysis of chitinases in the water-extract of the solid-state culture indicated(More)
Glutaminase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NYW-81 was purified to homogeneity with a final specific activity of 325 U/mg. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated to be 41 kDa by gel filtration. A subunit molecular mass of 36 kDa was measured with SDS-PAGE, thus indicating that the native enzyme is a monomer. The N-terminal amino acid(More)
A culture filtrate of Bacillus circulans KA-304 grown on a cell-wall preparation of Schizophyllum commune has an activity to form protoplasts from S. commune mycelia, and a combination of alpha-1,3-glucanase and chitinase I, which were isolated from the filtrate, brings about the protoplast-forming activity. The gene of alpha-1,3-glucanase was cloned from(More)
Glutamine production with bacterial glutamine synthetase (GS) and the sugar-fermenting system of baker's yeast for ATP regeneration was investigated by determining the product yield obtained with the energy source for ATP regeneration (i.e., glucose) for yeast fermentation. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was accumulated temporarily prior to the formation of(More)