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We have obtained, for the first time, a quantitative protein expression profile of membrane transporters and receptors in human brain microvessels, that is, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain microvessels were isolated from brain cortexes of seven males (16-77 years old) and protein expression of 114 membrane proteins was determined by means of a liquid(More)
H5N1 influenza A viruses have spread to numerous countries in Asia, Europe and Africa, infecting not only large numbers of poultry, but also an increasing number of humans, often with lethal effects. Human and avian influenza A viruses differ in their recognition of host cell receptors: the former preferentially recognize receptors with saccharides(More)
A previously uncharacterized type of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) was identified recently in the Sea lamprey. This jawless vertebrate generates an extensive VLR repertoire through differential insertion of neighboring diverse leucine-rich repeat (LRR) cassettes into an incomplete germ-line VLR gene. We report here VLR homologs from two additional(More)
The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A4 gene (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) by both endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. SXR and its rodent ortholog PXR exhibit marked differences in their ability to be activated by xenobiotic inducers. This(More)
E. coli preprotein translocase comprises SecA and SecY/E/G complex. SecA delivers the preprotein to the putative protein-conducting channel formed by SecY/E by undergoing ATP-driven cycles of membrane insertion and deinsertion. SecG renders the translocase highly efficient. An antibody raised against the C-terminal region of SecG inhibits preprotein(More)
Monascin (1) constitutes one of the azaphilonoid pigments in the extracts of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice). Compound 1 was evaluated for its anti-tumor-initiating activity via oral administration on the two-stage carcinogenesis of mouse skin tumor induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO-; PN) or by ultraviolet light B (UVB) as an initiator and(More)
Six azaphilones, monascin (1), ankaflavin (2), rubropunctatin (3), monascorburin (4), rubropunctamine (5), and monascorburamine (6), two furanoisophthalides, xanthomonasin A (7) and xanthomonasin B (8), and two amino acids, (+)-monascumic acid (9) and (-)-monascumic acid (10), isolated from the extracts of Monascus pilosus-fermented rice (red-mold rice)(More)
We found a polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in the cell extract of Streptomyces lavendulae REN-7. About 0.8 mg of purified PPO was obtained from 200 g of the mycelia with a yield of 9.0%. REN-7-PPO showed broad substrate specificity toward various aromatic compounds. Moreover, this enzyme was capable of oxidation of syringaldazine, which is a specific substrate for(More)
The dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of dietary apple polyphenol (AP) from unripe apple, which contains approximately 85% catechin oligomers (procyanidins), were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 wk of age) given a purified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. Dietary AP at 0.5 and 1.0% levels significantly decreased the(More)
To understand better which voltage-dependent calcium channels (VGCCs) are involved in nociceptive neurotransmission, we investigated the pharmacological properties and distribution of VGCCs in the mouse spinal cord. A behavioral assay revealed that intrathecal injections of omega-agatoxin TK, omega-agatoxin IVA, omega-conotoxin GVIA, and SNX-482, which(More)