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We have obtained, for the first time, a quantitative protein expression profile of membrane transporters and receptors in human brain microvessels, that is, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Brain microvessels were isolated from brain cortexes of seven males (16-77 years old) and protein expression of 114 membrane proteins was determined by means of a liquid(More)
H5N1 influenza A viruses have spread to numerous countries in Asia, Europe and Africa, infecting not only large numbers of poultry, but also an increasing number of humans, often with lethal effects. Human and avian influenza A viruses differ in their recognition of host cell receptors: the former preferentially recognize receptors with saccharides(More)
The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of the cytochrome P450 3A4 gene (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) by both endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. SXR and its rodent ortholog PXR exhibit marked differences in their ability to be activated by xenobiotic inducers. This(More)
Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST; SULT 1E1 or STE gene) sulfonates estrogens to inactive estrogen sulfates, whereas steroid sulfatase (STS) hydrolyzes estrone sulfate to estrone. Both EST and STS have been suggested to play important roles in regulating the in situ production of estrogens in human breast carcinoma tissues. However, the expression of EST has(More)
Tissue repair often occurs in organs damaged by an inflammatory response. Inflammatory stimuli induce a rapid and massive release of inflammatory cells including neutrophils from the bone marrow. Recently, many studies suggested that bone marrow cells have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. However, whether inflammatory stimuli(More)
Services are capabilities that enable applications and are of crucial importance to pervasive computing in next-generation networks. Service Composition is the construction of complex services from primitive ones; thus enabling rapid and flexible creation of new services. The presence of multiple independent service providers poses new and significant(More)
During Drosophila visual system development, photoreceptor (R) axons choose their correct paths and targets in a step-wise fashion. R axons with different identities make specific pathfinding decisions at different stages during development. We show here that the transmembrane protein Golden goal (Gogo), which is dynamically expressed in all R neurons and(More)
E. coli preprotein translocase comprises SecA and SecY/E/G complex. SecA delivers the preprotein to the putative protein-conducting channel formed by SecY/E by undergoing ATP-driven cycles of membrane insertion and deinsertion. SecG renders the translocase highly efficient. An antibody raised against the C-terminal region of SecG inhibits preprotein(More)
Urocortin 3 (Ucn 3) or stresscopin (SCP) is a new member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide family and is a specific ligand for CRF type 2 receptor (CRF2). CRF receptors are known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and are considered to play pathophysiological roles, for example, in gastrointestinal motility under stress.(More)
To understand better which voltage-dependent calcium channels (VGCCs) are involved in nociceptive neurotransmission, we investigated the pharmacological properties and distribution of VGCCs in the mouse spinal cord. A behavioral assay revealed that intrathecal injections of omega-agatoxin TK, omega-agatoxin IVA, omega-conotoxin GVIA, and SNX-482, which(More)