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Recent studies have shown that neurogenesis is enhanced after hypoxia and that erythropoietin (EPO), an inducible cytokine, is produced in the brain as part of the intrinsic hypoxia response. Thus, we asked whether EPO might regulate neurogenesis by forebrain neural stem cells (NSCs). We found that EPO receptors are expressed in the embryonic germinal zone(More)
Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have recently been shown to differentiate exclusively into astrocytes, the cells that are involved in glial scar formation after spinal cord injury (SCI). The microenvironment of the spinal cord, especially the inflammatory cytokines that dramatically increase in the acute phase at the injury site, is(More)
Both insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induce the differentiation of post-mitotic neuronal precursors, derived from embryonic day 14 (E14) mouse striatal multipotent stem cells. Here we ask whether this differentiation is mediated by a member of the POU-III class of neural transcription factors. Exposure of(More)
Mammalian corticogenesis occurs through a complex process that includes neurogenesis, in which neural progenitor cells proliferate, differentiate, and migrate. It has been reported recently that neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a region previously thought to be the primary site of gliogenesis. It has been recognized that in the SVZ,(More)
The adult mouse forebrain, which exhibits substantial ongoing cell genesis, contains self-renewing multipotent neural stem cells that respond to epidermal growth factor (EGF), but the adult spinal cord, which exhibits limited cell genesis, does not. Spinal cord development is a process characterized by defined periods of cell histogenesis. Thus, in the(More)
Each neuron possesses a unique firing property, which is largely attributed to heterogeneity in the composition of voltage-gated ion channel complexes. Zebrafish Mauthner (M) cells, which are bilaterally paired giant reticulospinal neurons (RSNs) in the hindbrain and induce rapid escape behavior, generate only a single spike at the onset of depolarization.(More)
This paper presents a method which reduces uncertainty of a position and a direction of an autonomous robot by observing environment with a camera. In the proposed method, the state of the robot is represented by a state vector obeying a probability distribution. The robot creates and renews an environment map by considering the information from the mounted(More)
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