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BACKGROUND ARX is a paired-type homeobox gene located on the X chromosome that contains five exons with four polyalanine (PolyA) tracts, a homeodomain, and a conserved C-terminal aristaless domain. Studies in humans have demonstrated remarkable pleiotropy: malformation phenotypes are associated with protein truncation mutations and missense mutations in the(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins, composed of α, β, and γ subunits, can transduce a variety of signals from seven-transmembrane-type receptors to intracellular effectors. By whole-exome sequencing and subsequent mutation screening, we identified de novo heterozygous mutations in GNAO1, which encodes a Gαo subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, in four individuals(More)
The high incidence of acute encephalopathy in East Asia suggests the role of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. It has recently been reported that variations of the CPT II (carnitine palmitoyl transferase II) gene may be associated with fatal or severe cases of influenza-associated encephalopathy. In the present study, we examined the genotype of CPT II(More)
A Japanese boy developed febrile seizures and gait disturbance at 2 years of age and dysarthria a year later. He had generalized tonic-clonic seizures once or twice a year from the age of 4 years. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed symmetric low-density areas in the white matter of the frontal lobes. However, abnormal CT findings fluctuated occasionally,(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is a childhood encephalopathy following severe febrile seizures, leaving neurologic sequelae in many patients. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we clarified that genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor (ADORA2A), whose activation is(More)
Four patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy and parenchymal lesions accompanying reversible splenial lesions were retrospectively evaluated. In 3 patients, reversible lesions with transiently reduced diffusion were seen in the splenium and symmetrically in the peripheral frontoparietal white matter, clinical signs and symptoms were mild, and recovery was(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify the immune pathophysiology of West syndrome (WS). STUDY DESIGN We measured peripheral blood lymphocyte subset and serum cytokine profiles in 76 WS patients and 26 age-matched controls. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is one of the most effective therapy for WS and presumably immune-modulating; therefore, we compared the measured(More)
It is known that rotavirus gastroenteritis can accompany some neurological manifestations, including encephalitis/encephalopathy or seizures. However, the detailed pathogenesis involved has not been fully understood. To date, acute cerebellitis associated rotavirus gastroenteritis has not been previously reported, except for one case. Herein, we describe(More)
We report an 11-year-old girl with Chiari type I malformation and syringomyelia, who experienced isolated sleep apnea without other neurologic problems. Monitoring with oximetry and movement of thoracic and abdominal walls indicated mixed-type sleep apnea. Chiari type I malformation should be differentiated from other disorders causing sleep apnea.
We report sibling cases of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency, which is a very rare congenital metabolic disorder. These patients were born to healthy and non-consanguineous parents, and presented oculogyric crises, paroxysmal dystonic attacks, and severe psychomotor retardation since early infancy. In cerebrospinal fluid the levels of(More)