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Four patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy and parenchymal lesions accompanying reversible splenial lesions were retrospectively evaluated. In 3 patients, reversible lesions with transiently reduced diffusion were seen in the splenium and symmetrically in the peripheral frontoparietal white matter, clinical signs and symptoms were mild, and recovery was(More)
BACKGROUND ARX is a paired-type homeobox gene located on the X chromosome that contains five exons with four polyalanine (PolyA) tracts, a homeodomain, and a conserved C-terminal aristaless domain. Studies in humans have demonstrated remarkable pleiotropy: malformation phenotypes are associated with protein truncation mutations and missense mutations in the(More)
Sotos syndrome (SoS) is an autosomal dominant overgrowth syndrome with characteristic craniofacial dysmorphic features and various degrees of mental retardation. We previously showed that haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene is the major cause of SoS, and submicroscopic deletions at 5q35, including NSD1, were found in about a half (20/42) of our patients(More)
Heterotrimeric G proteins, composed of α, β, and γ subunits, can transduce a variety of signals from seven-transmembrane-type receptors to intracellular effectors. By whole-exome sequencing and subsequent mutation screening, we identified de novo heterozygous mutations in GNAO1, which encodes a Gαo subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, in four individuals(More)
KCNT1 mutations have been found in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS; also known as migrating partial seizures in infancy), autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and other types of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). We performed KCNT1-targeted next-generation sequencing (207 samples) and/or whole-exome(More)
The high incidence of acute encephalopathy in East Asia suggests the role of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. It has recently been reported that variations of the CPT II (carnitine palmitoyl transferase II) gene may be associated with fatal or severe cases of influenza-associated encephalopathy. In the present study, we examined the genotype of CPT II(More)
We describe a 5-year-old boy and a 33-year-old woman with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity leptodactylic form (spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations) (MIM 6003546), and two 12-year-old girls with the disorder who were previously reported as examples of a variant of sponatrime dysplasia. Their clinical manifestations(More)
Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GMS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset nephrotic syndrome and microcephaly with various anomalies of the central nervous system. GMS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders with hitherto unknown genetic etiology. The clinical phenotype to some extent overlaps that of Pierson syndrome(More)
INTRODUCTION The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy, but it can result in a variety of complications that sometimes limits its usefulness. Hypoproteinemia is one of the common adverse effects of this diet, although the underling mechanism is largely unknown except for the diet's reduced protein intake. Only one case(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify the immune pathophysiology of West syndrome (WS). STUDY DESIGN We measured peripheral blood lymphocyte subset and serum cytokine profiles in 76 WS patients and 26 age-matched controls. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is one of the most effective therapy for WS and presumably immune-modulating; therefore, we compared the measured(More)