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Abnormal smooth-muscle contractility may be a major cause of disease states such as hypertension, and a smooth-muscle relaxant that modulates this process would be useful therapeutically. Smooth-muscle contraction is regulated by the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and by the Ca2+ sensitivity of myofilaments: the former activates myosin light-chain kinase and(More)
Reward is important for shaping goal-directed behaviour. After stimulus-reward associative learning, an organism can assess the motivational value of the incoming stimuli on the basis of past experience (retrospective processing), and predict forthcoming rewarding events (prospective processing). The traditional role of the sensory thalamus is to relay(More)
Among other deficits, amygdalectomy impairs the ability of the animal to recognize the affective significance of a stimulus. In the present study, neuronal activity in the amygdala (AM) was recorded from alert monkeys while they performed tasks leading to the presentation of rewarding or aversive stimuli. Of 585 AM neurons tested, 312 (53.3%) responded to(More)
Neuronal activities were recorded from the amygdala and amygdalostriatal transition area of behaving rats during discrimination of conditioned auditory, visual, olfactory, and somatosensory stimuli associated with positive and/or negative reinforcements. Neurons were also tested with taste solution and various sensory stimuli that were not associated with(More)
The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) is involved in integrative functions related to emotion, reward, aversion, and learning. It is, however, unclear whether the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) forms a substrate common to the anterior and posterior hypothalamic areas or whether information regarding rewarding and aversive stimuli converges on and is integrated by(More)
Involvement of rat lateral hypothalamus (LHA) neurons in integration of motivation, reward, and learning processes was studied by recording single-neuron activity during cuetone discrimination, learning behavior to obtain glucose, or electrical rewarding intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) of the posterior LHA. To relate the activity of an LHA neuron to(More)
Neuronal activity in the amygdala (AM) was recorded from alert monkeys during performance of tasks that led to presentation of rewarding or aversive stimuli. The tasks had 3 phases: (1) discrimination (visual, auditory), (2) operant response (bar pressing), and (3) ingestion (reward) or avoidance (aversion). Neuronal activity was analyzed and compared(More)
The subiculum is the major output of the hippocampal formation (involved in spatial processing). Subicular afferents innervate the nucleus accumbens, which is thought to integrate limbic reward information with motor output. Rats were chronically implanted with extra-cellular recording electrodes aimed at both structures to investigate the functional(More)
The amygdala (AM) receives information from various sensory modalities via the neocortex and directly from the thalamus and brain stem and plays an important role in ingestive behaviors. In the present study, neuronal activity was recorded in the AM and amygdalostriatal transition area of rats during discrimination of conditioned sensory stimuli and(More)
Pharmacological studies have suggested that the cholinergic (ACh) and noradrenergic (NA) systems in the amygdala (AM) play an important role in learning and memory storage and that the two systems interact to modulate memory storage. To obtain anatomical evidence for the interaction, the organization of the ACh and NA fibers in rat AM was investigated by(More)