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Ethanol stimulates the firing activity of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic system. This effect is thought to underlie the behavioral reinforcement of alcohol intake. Ethanol has been shown to directly enhance the intrinsic pacemaker activity of DA neurons, yet the cellular mechanism mediating(More)
During early postnatal development, midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons display anomalous firing patterns and amphetamine response. Spontaneous miniature hyperpolarizations (SMHs) are observed in DA neurons during the same period but not in adults. These hyperpolarizations have been shown to be dependent on the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the(More)
In angiosperms, fertilization and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries; therefore, these processes are poorly elucidated. In this study, microarray-based transcriptome analyses were conducted on rice sperm cells, egg cells, and zygotes isolated from flowers to identify candidate genes involved in gametic and/or(More)
In angiosperms, female gamete differentiation, fertilization, and subsequent zygotic development occur in embryo sacs deeply embedded in the ovaries. Despite their importance in plant reproduction and development, how the egg cell is specialized, fuses with the sperm cell, and converts into an active zygote for early embryogenesis remains unclear. This lack(More)
Many techniques for rendering natural objects such as the sea, terrains, and trees have been developed; they are indispensable for flight simulators. In this paper, techniques for rendering road surfaces under various conditions are discussed. Rendering road surfaces is quite useful for the evaluation of driving safety, and it will play an important part in(More)
A vacuolar cysteine proteinase, designated SH-EP, is expressed in the cotyledon of germinated Vigna mungo seeds and is responsible for the degradation of storage proteins. SH-EP is a characteristic vacuolar proteinase possessing a COOH-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence, KDEL. In this work, immunocytochemical analysis of the cotyledon(More)
A highly efficient, rapid, and reliable PCR-based method for distinguishing Lactococcus lactis subspecies (L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) is described. Primers complementary to positions in the glutamate decarboxylase gene have been constructed. PCR analysis with extracted DNA or with cells of different L. lactis strains resulted in(More)
Hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide (HCNP) is involved in the phenotype development of the septo-hippocampal system. HCNP precursor protein (HCNP-pp) is known to interact with other molecules including phosphatidylethanolamine and Raf-1 kinase, and is also known as phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein and raf kinase-inhibitory protein. To(More)