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Unilateral lesions of the rostral midbrain involving the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) have been known to produce ocular torsion in alert animals including humans, which has been assumed to be the result of an impaired otolith-ocular reflex. We examined the effects of chemical deactivation of the INC using a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist(More)
1. The interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) is involved in generation of vertical eye movements. To further explore the neural substrates of INC involvement in eye movements, we examined the discharge characteristics of neurons in the rostral midbrain that discharge for vestibular stimulation and saccades in alert cats. We analyzed 75 vestibular and saccade(More)
We have identified a strong candidate cDNA for the mouse reeler gene. This 5 kb transcript encodes a 99.4 kD protein consisting of 881 amino acids and possessing two EGF-like motifs. We assayed two independent mutant alleles--'Jackson reeler', which has a deletion of the entire gene, and 'Orleans reeler' which exhibits a 220 bp deletion in the open reading(More)
OBJECT Although the gray matter of the spinal cord has been thought to be softer than the white matter, there is no evidence to support this belief. Because the spinal cord is extremely soft, it has been difficult to measure the mechanical properties of the gray and white matter. The modulis of elasticity of the gray and white matter were measured in situ(More)
Z-100 is an arabinomannan extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has various immunomodulatory activities, such as the induction of interleukin 12, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines. The effects of Z-100 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are investigated in this(More)
PURPOSE To examine the expression of c-fos proto-oncogene in the rat retina after focal retinal injury. METHODS A penetrating wound was made by pushing a 22-gauge hypodermic needle through the retina into the vitreous. The retinas were analyzed by in situ hybridization using single-stranded RNA probes for c-fos transcripts and by immunocytochemistry using(More)
(1) Discharge characteristics of neurons in the region of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) were studied in alert cats during spontaneous or visually induced eye movement and sinusoidal vertical (pitch) rotation. Activity of a majority of cells (n = 68) was closely related to vertical eye position with or without bursting activity during on-direction(More)
The present study utilised pipette aspiration and simultaneous confocal microscopy to test the hypothesis that chondrocyte deformation is associated with distortion of intracellular organelles and activation of calcium signalling. Aspiration pressure was applied to isolated articular chondrocytes in increments of 2 cm of water every 60 seconds up to a(More)
A 60-year-old man developed diplopia and experienced difficulty moving his eyes. Vertical movement of each eye, including vestibulo-ocular reflex and smooth pursuit, was extremely limited. Horizontal eye movements were normal. His head position was tilted toward his left. There was 10 prism diopters of exotropia and 10 prism diopters of right hypertropia.(More)