Takashi Ohashi

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Z-100 is an arabinomannan extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has various immunomodulatory activities, such as the induction of interleukin 12, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines. The effects of Z-100 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are investigated in this(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is thought to play a pivotal role in immortalization of T cells. We have recently shown that the expression of Tax protected the mouse T-cell line CTLL-2 against apoptosis induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) deprivation and converted its growth from being IL-2 dependent to being IL-2 independent. In this study, we(More)
BACKGROUND Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The disease has a high mortality rate and is resistant to chemotherapy; therefore, immunologic approaches to treatment could be of interest. We have previously shown that athymic rats inoculated with a syngeneic (i.e., with the same genetic(More)
Although clonal expansion of autoimmune T cells has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), very limited information is available on specificities, clonal size, or activation state of the expanded clones. Here we address the issue of clonal expansion by using a novel technique demonstrating clonotypes defined by single-strand conformation polymorphism of(More)
BACKGROUND In vivo studies of HIV-1 pathogenesis and testing of antiviral strategies have been hampered by the lack of an immunocompetent small animal model that is highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Although transgenic rats that express the HIV-1 receptor complex hCD4 and hCCR5 are susceptible to infection, HIV-1 replicates very poorly in these(More)
For protection from HIV-1 infection, a vaccine should elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A novel vaccine regimen and adjuvant that induce high levels of HIV-1 Env-specific T cell and antibody (Ab) responses was developed in this study. The prime-boost regimen that used combinations of replication-competent vaccinia LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) and(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). To develop a better animal model for the investigation of HTLV-1 infection, we established a transgenic (Tg) rat carrying the human CRM1 (hCRM1) gene, which encodes a viral RNA transporter that is a species-specific restriction factor. At first we found that(More)
BACKGROUND Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in infected individuals after a long incubation period. Immunological studies have suggested that insufficient host T cell response to HTLV-I is a potential risk factor for ATL. To understand the relationship between host T cell response and HTLV-I pathogenesis in a(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) are representative human retroviruses. To develop prophylactic vaccines and more effective medicines, small animal models for the virus infection are useful if they can be infected with the viruses. We constructed a transgenic (Tg) rat expressing human CRM1 (hCRM1), a(More)
Nik-related kinase (Nrk) is a Ser/Thr kinase and was initially discovered as a molecule that was predominantly detected in skeletal muscles during development. A recent study using Nrk-null mice suggested the importance of Nrk in proper placental development; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that(More)