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Effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on the relative abundance of myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNAs in the developing rat brain were examined. After DEX (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline was administered intraperitoneally to 3-day-old rats for 7 consecutive days, wet weight, DNA content and the(More)
Z-100 is an arabinomannan extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has various immunomodulatory activities, such as the induction of interleukin 12, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines. The effects of Z-100 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are investigated in this(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is thought to play a pivotal role in immortalization of T cells. We have recently shown that the expression of Tax protected the mouse T-cell line CTLL-2 against apoptosis induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) deprivation and converted its growth from being IL-2 dependent to being IL-2 independent. In this study, we(More)
Although clonal expansion of autoimmune T cells has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), very limited information is available on specificities, clonal size, or activation state of the expanded clones. Here we address the issue of clonal expansion by using a novel technique demonstrating clonotypes defined by single-strand conformation polymorphism of(More)
BACKGROUND In vivo studies of HIV-1 pathogenesis and testing of antiviral strategies have been hampered by the lack of an immunocompetent small animal model that is highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Although transgenic rats that express the HIV-1 receptor complex hCD4 and hCCR5 are susceptible to infection, HIV-1 replicates very poorly in these(More)
Postnatal development, such as synapse refinement, is necessary for the establishment of a mature and functional central nervous system (CNS). Using differential display analysis, we identified a novel gene, termed Bdm1, that is more abundantly expressed in the adult brain than in the embryonic brain. The full-length Bdm1 cDNA is 2718 base pairs long and(More)
For protection from HIV-1 infection, a vaccine should elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. A novel vaccine regimen and adjuvant that induce high levels of HIV-1 Env-specific T cell and antibody (Ab) responses was developed in this study. The prime-boost regimen that used combinations of replication-competent vaccinia LC16m8Δ (m8Δ) and(More)
Most of the neurogenesis take place during the embryonic stage; the genes expressed predominantly in this stage may play important roles in the control of development of the central nervous system. Using a differential display method, we identified the novel rat gene, brain development-related molecule 2 (Bdm2), that is expressed more abundantly in the(More)
BACKGROUND Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in infected individuals after a long incubation period. Immunological studies have suggested that insufficient host T cell response to HTLV-I is a potential risk factor for ATL. To understand the relationship between host T cell response and HTLV-I pathogenesis in a(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) are representative human retroviruses. To develop prophylactic vaccines and more effective medicines, small animal models for the virus infection are useful if they can be infected with the viruses. We constructed a transgenic (Tg) rat expressing human CRM1 (hCRM1), a(More)