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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. IDO is immunosuppressive and is induced by inflammation in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Previous studies have shown the serum Kyn/Trp levels in patients with hemolytic anemia to be notably high. In the present study, we… (More)
Concerning the Goldberg conjecture, we will prove a result obtained by applying the result of Iton in terms of L 2-norm of the scalar curvature.