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Xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase are enzymes involved in the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines in various organisms. Their relationship to one another has been the subject of considerable debate, primarily because of their proposed roles in ischemia/reperfusion damage in tissues. Differences in the kinetics and oxidation-reduction behavior of(More)
To test the possibility that MexX-MexY, a new set of efflux system components, is associated with OprM and contributes to intrinsic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we constructed a series of isogenic mutants lacking mexXY and/or mexAB and/or oprM from a laboratory strain PAO1, and examined their susceptibilities to ofloxacin, tetracycline,(More)
Active surveillance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection among hospitalized patients in Calcutta, India, was initiated in January 1994. The incidence of cases of V. parahaemolyticus infection suddenly increased in February 1996 and has remained high since then. One hundred thirty-four strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from January 1994 to August 1996(More)
To find the exact substrate specificities of three species of tripartite efflux systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, and MexXY-OprM, we constructed a series of isogenic mutants, each of which constitutively overproduced one of the three efflux systems and lacked the other two, and their isogenic mutants, which lacked all these systems.(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish an appropriate steroid treatment regimen for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS A retrospective survey of AIP treatment was conducted in 17 centres in Japan. The main outcome measures were rate of remission and relapse. RESULTS Of 563 patients with AIP, 459 (82%) received steroid treatment. The remission rate of(More)
Commercial crude fucoidan (Sigma) from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus was fractionated into its polysaccharide components by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography to clarify the structure-anticoagulant activity relationship. The products comprised a wide spectrum of fucans ranging from typical fucoidans (major components) containing mainly(More)
Cellulose nanofibrils offer interesting potential as a native fibrous constituent of mechanical performance exceeding the plant fibers in current use for commercial products. In the present study, wood nanofibrils are used to prepare porous cellulose nanopaper of remarkably high toughness. Nanopapers of different porosities and from nanofibrils of different(More)
Xanthine dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and the further oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. The enzyme is the target of the anti-gout drug allopurinol and its involvement in postischemic reperfusion injury is presently being defined. Each subunit of the homodimeric 290 kDa enzyme contains four cofactors: one Mo-pterin, two(More)
OprJ, overproduced in nfxB multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and OprK, overproduced in the multidrug-resistant strain K385, were demonstrated to be immunologically cross-reactive using an OprJ-specific monoclonal antibody. Treatment of the purified proteins with trypsin or chymotrypsin yielded virtually indistinguishable digestion(More)
Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductases, which catalyze the last two steps in the formation of urate, are synthesized as the dehydrogenase form xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) but can be readily converted to the oxidase form xanthine oxidase (XO) by oxidation of sulfhydryl residues or by proteolysis. Here, we present the crystal structure of the dimeric (M(r),(More)