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The effects of increasing depths of anaesthesia on phrenic nerve (PN) activity and hypoglossal nerve (HN) activity during the swallowing reflex elicited by stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) were investigated in 10 cats. Swallowing induced by SLN stimulation always coincided with a characteristic brief burst of PN activity and a large(More)
We investigated the coordination of swallowing and breathing in 11 unconscious patients with an endotracheal tube in place during the recovery period from general anesthesia. Swallows occurred during both the inspiratory and expiratory phases with no preponderant occurrence during either phase. When a swallow occurred during inspiration, the inspiration was(More)
We investigated the effects of increasing CO2 ventilatory drive on the coordination of respiration and reflex swallowing elicited by continuous infusion of distilled water into the pharynx (2.5 ml/min) in 11 normal subjects. Ventilation was monitored using a pneumotachograph and swallowing was recorded by submental electromyogram. The CO2 ventilatory drive(More)
We evaluated the sensation of dyspnea induced by hypercapnia alone and a combination of hypercapnia and flow-resistive loading by the use of visual analogue scale (VAS) and the use of 13 listed descriptors in 23 healthy subjects. Hypercapnia alone caused a modest degree of dyspnea characterized by both air hunger and work/effort sensations. An addition of(More)
Swallowing must interact with respiration so that a swallow causes minimal or no disturbance of continual respiration. In order to study the coordinate control of swallowing and respiration, we investigated the effects of spontaneous and water-induced swallows on the pattern of ongoing respiration in 8 adult human subjects. Swallows were identified by(More)
1. Immediately after breath-holding at end-expiratory level, there is a certain period of no particular respiratory sensation which is terminated by the onset of an unpleasant sensation and followed by progressive discomfort during breath-holding. This period, defined as the time from the start of voluntary breath-holding to the point where the onset of an(More)
The response of breathing patterns to increased expiratory resistance is not only of physiologic interest, with respect to the control of breathing, but also of clinical interest because of its clinical relevance to obstructive diseases such as asthma and emphysema. To elucidate the response of breathing patterns to increased expiratory resistance during(More)
Breath-holding is one of the most powerful methods to induce the dyspneic sensation, and the breath-holding test gives us much information on the onset and endurance of dyspnea. In conscious subjects, immediately after the start of breath-holding at functional residual capacity (FRC), there is a certain period of no particular respiratory sensation lasting(More)
We investigated respiratory reflex responses to tracheal mucosa stimulation induced by injection of distilled water in 13 female patients under three different depths of enflurane anesthesia (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 minimum alveolar concentration). Detailed analysis of the types of reflex responses revealed that there are at least six different responses: 1) the(More)