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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, consisting of MAPK, MAPK kinase (MAPKK) and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), is the signaling system that relays various external signals, including mitogens and stresses in eukaryotes. MAPKK is activated by phosphorylation in the consensus motif, SXXXS/T, in animals, but the regulation mechanism for the(More)
We isolated a thermophilic bacterium that produces both xylanase and beta-xylosidase. Based on taxonomical research, this bacterium was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus. Each extracellular enzyme was separated by hydrophobic chromatography by using a Toyopearl HW-65 column, followed by gel filtration with a Sephacryl S-200 column. Each enzyme in(More)
The Arabidopsis mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK1) plays an important role in stress signaling. However, little is known about the upstream pathways of MEKK1. This report describes the regulation of MEKK1 activity during cold signaling. Immunoprecipitated MEKK1 from cold-treated Arabidopsis seedlings showed elevated kinase activity(More)
The MEKK1-MKK2-MPK4 cascade is activated during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the perception of low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of Arabidopsis with a membrane rigidifier, DMSO, caused MPK4 activation concomitantly with MEKK1 and MKK2 phosphorylation, as well as the cold-inducible gene COR15a expression.(More)
The crystals of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus belong to space group P21 with the following cell dimensions: a = 57.70 A, b = 92.87 A, c = 65.93 A, and beta =101.95 degrees. The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.5 A with R-factors of 0.170 and 0.164, respectively. The final model of(More)
We have constructed a series of deletion mutants of Arabidopsis MAPK kinase kinase (AtMEKK1) and obtained a constitutively active mutant, AtMEKK1Delta166, which lacks in self-inhibitory sequence of N-terminal 166 amino acids but still has substrate specificity. AtMEKK1Delta166 predominantly phosphorylates AtMEK1, an Arabidopsis MAPKK, but not its double(More)
A major question is whether exposure to mixtures of low-dose endocrine disruptors (EDs) having different action mechanisms affects neurodevelopment differently than exposure to EDs individually. We therefore investigated the effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to three typical EDs - bisphenol A (BPA), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), and(More)
Phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) is involved in choline biosynthesis in plants. The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of several PEAMT genes was found to contain an upstream open reading frame (uORF). We generated transgenic Arabidopsis calli that expressed a chimeric gene constructed by fusing the 5' UTR of the Arabidopsis PEAMT gene (AtNMT1)(More)
Bacillus stearothermophilus 21 is a gram-positive, facultative thermophilic aerobe that can utilize xylan as a sole source of carbon. We isolated this strain from soil, purified its extracellular xylanase and beta-xylosidase, and analyzed the two-step degradation of xylan by these enzymes (T. Nanmori, T. Watanabe, R. Shinke, A. Kohno, and Y. Kawamura, J.(More)