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Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into(More)
This report shows that interleukin (IL) 17-producing T helper type 17 (Th17) cells predominantly express CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 6 in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Th17 cells induced in vivo in normal mice via homeostatic proliferation similarly express CCR6, whereas those inducible in vitro by transforming growth factor beta and IL-6(More)
The pannexin proteins represent a new gap junction family. However, the cellular functions of pannexins remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that pannexin 3 (Panx3) promotes differentiation of osteoblasts and ex vivo growth of metatarsals. Panx3 expression was induced during osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells and primary calvarial cells, and(More)
We performed a study of three-dimensional (3-D) linear measurements in the maxillofacial region using helical computer tomography (CT). The high accuracy of the linear measurements showed errors of less than 5% from the actual measures. But, it is possible that the accuracy was influenced by inaccurate head positions. In this study, we evaluated the errors(More)
A combination of genetic and environmental factors can cause autoimmune disease in animals. SKG mice, which are genetically prone to develop autoimmune arthritis, fail to develop the disease under a microbially clean condition, despite active thymic production of arthritogenic autoimmune T cells and their persistence in the periphery. However, in the clean(More)
Tooth morphogenesis results from reciprocal interactions between oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme culminating in the formation of mineralized tissues, enamel, and dentin. During this process, epithelial cells differentiate into enamel-secreting ameloblasts. Ameloblastin, an enamel matrix protein, is expressed by differentiating ameloblasts. Here, we(More)