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The chemotactic factors directing interneuron migration during cerebrocortical development are essentially unknown. Here we identify the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in interneuron precursors migrating from the basal forebrain to the neocortex and demonstrate that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent chemoattractant for isolated striatal(More)
The continuing rise in atmospheric [CO2] is predicted to have diverse and dramatic effects on the productivity of agriculture, plant ecosystems and gas exchange. Stomatal pores in the epidermis provide gates for the exchange of CO2 and water between plants and the atmosphere, processes vital to plant life. Increased [CO2] has been shown to enhance anion(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) primarily reside in the bone marrow where signals generated by stromal cells regulate their self-renewal, proliferation and trafficking. Endosteal osteoblasts and perivascular stromal cells including endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, leptin-receptor-positive stromal cells, and nestin-green fluorescent(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) is pruritogenic in humans and suggested to be involved in some pruritic diseases. Our experiments were carried out to determine whether an intradermal injection of 5-HT would elicit itch-associated response in mice and to elucidate the 5-HT receptor subtypes involved in this 5-HT action. 5-HT (14.1-235 nmol site(-1)) injected intradermally(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) in the thymus (tDCs) are predominantly accumulated in the medulla and contribute to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, how the medullary accumulation of tDCs is regulated and involved in self-tolerance is unclear. We show that the chemokine receptor XCR1 is expressed by tDCs, whereas medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)(More)
T cell development requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling with contributions from both the class IA, p110delta, and class IB, p110gamma catalytic subunits. However, the receptors on immature T cells by which each of these PI3Ks are activated have not been identified, nor has the mechanism behind their functional redundancy in the thymus.(More)
We compared the behavioral effects of treatment with pruritogenic and algesiogenic agents in mice. The animals were given subcutaneous injections of pruritogenic agents, compound 48/80 (3-100 micrograms), substance P (10-300 micrograms) and histamine (3-300 micrograms), and algesiogenic agents, capsaicin (30 and 100 micrograms) and dilute formalin (5 mg of(More)
Migration of neuronal precursor cells from the external germinal layer (EGL) to the internal granular layer (IGL) is a crucial process in the development of the mammalian cerebellar cortex. These cells make up the only precursor population known to migrate away from the surface of the brain. We studied the role of the chemokine stromal-derived factor 1(More)
The development of mossy-fibre projecting precerebellar neurons (PCN) presents a classical example of tangential neuronal migration. PCN migrate tangentially along marginal streams beneath the pial surface from the lower rhombic lip to specific locations in the hindbrain, where they form precerebellar nuclei. Among them, the pontine neurons follow a(More)
In mammals, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which give rise to all blood cells and their progenies, including immune cells are controlled by special microenvironments, termed niches in the bone marrow during homeostasis and infection. However, the identity, nature and function of these niches remain unclear. It has been reported that HSCs are in contact(More)