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The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1, SDF-1, is an important regulator of leukocyte and hematopoietic precursor migration and pre-B cell proliferation. The receptor for SDF-1, CXCR4, also functions as a coreceptor for T-tropic HIV-1 entry. We find that mice deficient for CXCR4 die perinatally and display profound defects in the hematopoietic and(More)
In the bone marrow, the special microenvironment niches nurture a pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Many HSCs reside near the vasculature, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of niches for HSC maintenance remains unclear. Here we showed that the induced deletion of CXCR4, a receptor for CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12 in adult mice, resulted in(More)
The chemokines are a large family of small, structurally related cytokines. The physiological importance of most members of this family has yet to be elucidated, although some are inducible inflammatory mediators that determine leukocyte chemotaxis. Pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (PBSF/SDF-1) is a member of the CXC group(More)
The chemotactic factors directing interneuron migration during cerebrocortical development are essentially unknown. Here we identify the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in interneuron precursors migrating from the basal forebrain to the neocortex and demonstrate that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a potent chemoattractant for isolated striatal(More)
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) primarily reside in the bone marrow where signals generated by stromal cells regulate their self-renewal, proliferation and trafficking. Endosteal osteoblasts and perivascular stromal cells including endothelial cells, CXCL12-abundant reticular cells, leptin-receptor-positive stromal cells, and nestin-green fluorescent(More)
The continuing rise in atmospheric [CO2] is predicted to have diverse and dramatic effects on the productivity of agriculture, plant ecosystems and gas exchange. Stomatal pores in the epidermis provide gates for the exchange of CO2 and water between plants and the atmosphere, processes vital to plant life. Increased [CO2] has been shown to enhance anion(More)
Mammalian sulfoglycolipids comprise two major members, sulfatide (HSO3-3-galactosylceramide) and seminolipid (HSO3-3-monogalactosylalkylacylglycerol). Sulfatide is a major lipid component of the myelin sheath and serves as the epitope for the well known oligodendrocyte-marker antibody O4. Seminolipid is synthesized in spermatocytes and maintained in the(More)
Peptides obtained by cleavage of a Rhodococcus rhodochrous K22 nitrilase, which acts on aliphatic nitriles such as acrylonitrile, crotonitrile, and glutaronitrile, have been sequenced. The data allowed the design of oligonucleotide probes which were used to clone a nitrilase encoding gene. Plasmid pNK21, in which 2.05-kb sequence covering the region(More)
A novel nitrilase that preferentially catalyzes the hydrolysis of aliphatic nitriles to the corresponding carboxylic acids and ammonia was found in the cells of a facultative crotononitrile-utilizing actinomycete isolated from soil. The strain was taxonomically studied and identified as Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The nitrilase was purified, with 9.08% overall(More)
The nitrile hydratase (NHase) of Pseudomonas chlororaphis B23, which is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, catalyzes the hydration of nitrile compounds to the corresponding amides. The NHase gene of strain B23 was cloned into Escherichia coli by the DNA-probing method with the NHase gene of Rhodococcus sp. strain N-774 as the hybridization probe.(More)