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The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) fall into three evolutionarily distinct families designated alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CAs based on their primary structure. beta-CAs are present in higher plants, algae, and prokaryotes, and are involved in inorganic carbon utilization. Here, we describe the novel x-ray structure of beta-CA from the red alga, Porphyridium(More)
Crystal structures of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase in the fully oxidized, fully reduced, azide-bound, and carbon monoxide-bound states were determined at 2.30, 2.35, 2.9, and 2.8 angstrom resolution, respectively. An aspartate residue apart from the O2 reduction site exchanges its effective accessibility to the matrix aqueous phase for one to the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate cardiovascular regulation and endocrine responses during the cold pressor test in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN Experimental and control study. SETTING University laboratory, department of rehabilitation medicine, in Japan. PARTICIPANTS Eight quadriplegic subjects with complete spinal cord transection(More)
BACKGROUND Our recent prospective study found equivalent accuracy of magnifying chromoendoscopy (MC) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosing the invasion depth of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, whether these tools show diagnostic differences in categories such as tumor size and morphology remains unclear. Hence, we conducted detailed subset(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the pressor response to static exercise in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) at the C6 to C8 level with that in able-bodied control subjects. In these SCI subjects, the descending supraspinal sympathetic neurons and afferent pathways from the contracting muscles to peripheral vessels via the medullary cardiovascular center(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autonomic dysfunction is frequently present in patients with cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders are not clear. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of CVA on the autonomic nervous system. METHODS In eight male patients with a history of CVA with damage of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate a part of the immune homeostasis in recreational athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) during and after a wheelchair half-marathon race. DESIGN Case-control study in an actual race. SETTING The half-marathon division of an international wheelchair marathon race in Japan. PARTICIPANTS Seven male wheelchair racers with SCI(More)
BACKGROUND Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) has been used to estimate the invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC), but the real diagnostic power of ME-NBI remains unclear because of few prospective studies. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether ME-NBI adds additional information to white-light imaging (WLI)(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and(More)
In order to elucidate the mechanism of the thermostability of proteins from hyperthermophiles, X-ray crystalline structures of pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase from a hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus (PfPCP), and its mutant protein with Ser substituted at Cys142 and Cys188 were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 A resolution, respectively. The obtained structures(More)