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Crystal structures of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase in the fully oxidized, fully reduced, azide-bound, and carbon monoxide-bound states were determined at 2.30, 2.35, 2.9, and 2.8 angstrom resolution, respectively. An aspartate residue apart from the O2 reduction site exchanges its effective accessibility to the matrix aqueous phase for one to the(More)
The carbonic anhydrases (CAs) fall into three evolutionarily distinct families designated alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CAs based on their primary structure. beta-CAs are present in higher plants, algae, and prokaryotes, and are involved in inorganic carbon utilization. Here, we describe the novel x-ray structure of beta-CA from the red alga, Porphyridium(More)
BACKGROUND Our recent prospective study found equivalent accuracy of magnifying chromoendoscopy (MC) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosing the invasion depth of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, whether these tools show diagnostic differences in categories such as tumor size and morphology remains unclear. Hence, we conducted detailed subset(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate a part of the immune homeostasis in recreational athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) during and after a wheelchair half-marathon race. DESIGN Case-control study in an actual race. SETTING The half-marathon division of an international wheelchair marathon race in Japan. PARTICIPANTS Seven male wheelchair racers with SCI(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the pressor response to static exercise in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) at the C6 to C8 level with that in able-bodied control subjects. In these SCI subjects, the descending supraspinal sympathetic neurons and afferent pathways from the contracting muscles to peripheral vessels via the medullary cardiovascular center(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Magnifying chromoendoscopy (MC) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) are used to estimate the depth of colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion, but it is not clear which procedure is more accurate. We performed a prospective study to compare MC and EUS. METHODS A total of 70 patients with an early stage flat CRC lesion were enrolled at 6(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and(More)
OBJECTIVE Aspirin-induced enteropathy is increasing, but whether the type of aspirin affects the gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, especially small intestine, is unclear. The incidence of GI bleeding for buffered aspirin and enteric-coated aspirin was evaluated in patients receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular (CV) diseases. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) has been used to estimate the invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC), but the real diagnostic power of ME-NBI remains unclear because of few prospective studies. OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether ME-NBI adds additional information to white-light imaging (WLI)(More)
20S proteasomes from higher eukaryotes have immunological functions rather than those from archibacteria or yeast. To clarify the mechanism of the sorting and production of antigen-presenting peptides, it is important and worthwhile to determine the structure of mammalian proteasomes using a third generation synchrotron radiation source. Here we report new(More)