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Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) exist in eukaryotes from yeast to human and constitute a superfamily consisting of more than 100 members. This superfamily is structurally classified into at least five families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Sar1/Arf, and Ran families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions as biological timers (biotimers) that initiate(More)
Costimulatory signals are required for activation of immune cells, but it is not known whether they contribute to other biological systems. The development and homeostasis of the skeletal system depend on the balance between bone formation and resorption. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) regulates the differentiation of bone-resorbing cells,(More)
SH-PTP2 is a nontransmembrane human protein-tyrosine phosphatase that contains two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and binds to insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) via these domains in response to insulin. The expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of SH-PTP2 (containing the mutation Cys-459-->Ser) in Chinese hamster ovary cells that overexpress human(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), such as SHP-1 and SHP-2, that contain Src homology 2 (SH2) domains play important roles in growth factor and cytokine signal transduction pathways. A protein of approximately 115 to 120 kDa that interacts with SHP-1 and SHP-2 was purified from v-src-transformed rat fibroblasts (SR-3Y1 cells), and the corresponding(More)
Signal regulatory protein (SIRP)alpha, also known as SHPS-1 or SIRPA, is a transmembrane protein that binds to the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 through its cytoplasmic region and is predominantly expressed in neurons, dendritic cells and macrophages. CD47, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is a ligand for SIRPalpha, with the two(More)
Receptors coupled to the inhibitory G protein Gi, such as that for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), have been shown to activate MAP kinase through a RAS-dependent pathway. However, LPA (but not insulin) has now been shown to activate MAP kinase in a RAS-independent manner in CHO cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the guanine nucleotide(More)
Activation of glycogen synthase is one of the major metabolic events triggered by exposure of cells to insulin. The molecular mechanism by which insulin activates glycogen synthase was investigated. The possible role of Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade was investigated with a stable cell line, CHO-IR-C/S 46, that overexpresses insulin(More)
The development of axons and dendrites is controlled by small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family, but the upstream signaling mechanisms responsible for such regulation remain unclear. We have now investigated the role of the transmembrane protein cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) in this process with hippocampal neurons. CD47-deficient neurons(More)
Confocal immunofluorescence image of a whole-mount of bullfrog sacculus, depicting the localization of myosin IIIa at the tips of the stereocilia. The image reveals the thimble-like pattern of the protein (yellow), surrounding the actin core (blue).
Both E-cadherin, a cell-cell adhesion molecule, and c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor (SF) receptor, were colocalized at cell-cell adhesion sites of MDCK cells. HGF/SF or a phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), induced disruption of cell-cell adhesion, which was accompanied by endocytosis of both E-cadherin and(More)