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The molecular mechanisms directing the development of TCRαβ + CD8αα + intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are not thoroughly understood. Here we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) controls the development of TCRαβ + CD8αα + IEL. Mice with either a TGF-β1 null mutation or a T cell-specific deletion of the TGF-β receptor I lacked TCRαβ +(More)
Computed tomography(CT) has been established as an important diagnostic tool in clinical medicine and has become a major source of medical exposure. A nationwide survey regarding CT examinations was carried out in Japan in 2000. CT units per million people in Japan numbered 87.8. The annual number of examinations was 0.1 million in those 0-14 years old,(More)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major public health concern. The recent identification of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway as a highly prevalent molecular signature underlying HNSCC pathogenesis has provided the foundation to search for novel therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat HNSCC. Here, we asked whether metformin,(More)
The molecular mechanisms by which signaling via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) control the differentiation of CD4(+) IL-9-producing helper T cells (TH9 cells) remain incompletely understood. We found here that the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3 regulated TH9 differentiation, as deletion of Id3 increased IL-9 production from CD4(+)(More)
OBJECTIVE Comparative evaluation of diagnostic efficacy of stereotactic brain biopsy performed with and without additional use of spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRS) for target selection was done. METHODS From 2002 to 2006, 30 patients with parenchymal brain lesions underwent (1)H-MRS-supported frame-based stereotactic biopsy, whereas in 39 others MRI-guided(More)
OBJECT The objective of the present study was analysis of results of the prospective clinical trial directed toward the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of the administration of autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) concomitant with fractionated radiotherapy in cases of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. METHODS Twenty-four patients were(More)
Harnessing regulatory T (Treg) cells is a promising approach for treating autoimmune disease. However, inducing antigen-specific Treg cells that target inflammatory immune cells without compromising beneficial immune responses has remained an unmet challenge. We developed a pathway to generate autoantigen-specific Treg cells in vivo, which showed(More)
OBJECT The objective of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the potential efficacy and safety of intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium and irradiation using a 664-nm semiconductor laser in patients with primary malignant parenchymal brain tumors. METHODS In 27 patients with suspected newly diagnosed or(More)
OBJECT Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) is becoming a standard treatment for vestibular schwannoma (VS); it is ranked with microsurgery from the perspective of tumor control and audiofacial nerve function preservation. A new treatment technique that will improve the tumor shrinkage ratio, shorten the patient's recovery time, and even recover some cranial nerve(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of the neurochemical navigation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) during intraoperative MRI (iMRI)-guided resection of the intracranial malignant gliomas. METHODS The analysis included 99 consecutive surgical cases. Resection of the bulk of the neoplasm was mainly guided by the updated neuronavigation based on the(More)