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The colloid osmotic nature of the cell lysis can be prevented by adding osmotic protectants of appropriate sizes to the outer medium. We introduced inorganic and organic electrolytes as protectants to determine the precise channel sizes of the polyene antibiotics, amphotericin B and nystatin, in addition to the sugars so far widely used for this purpose.(More)
The changes induced by biologically active substances in the permeability to K+ and calcein of liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were measured simultaneously in order to rapidly screen the sizes of pores formed in a membrane, using different sized markers. The substances examined in the present study were classified into three(More)
The action of gramicidin S and melittin on human erythrocytes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied as an extension of the previous study (Katsu, T., Ninomiya, C., Kuroko, M., Kobayashi, H., Hirota, T. and Fujita, Y. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 939, 57-63). These amphipathic peptides stimulated the release of membrane phospholipids(More)
Amphipathic peptides gramicidin S and melittin caused a characteristic colloid-osmotic hemolysis on human erythrocytes; that is, the peptides produced initially a small membrane lesion in erythrocyte membrane, followed by the release of hemoglobin. The size of membrane lesion increased with an increase in the concentration of peptide. Under the conditions(More)
The capacity to oxidize bufuralol (BF) and dextromethorphan (DEX) was compared kinetically between human CYP2D6 and four rat CYP2D (CYP2D1, -2D2, -2D3 and -2D4) isoenzymes in a yeast cell expression system. In BF 1''-hydroxylation and DEX O-demethylation, only CYP2D4 showed hook-shaped Eadie-Hofstee plots, the other four CYP2D enzymes exhibiting linear(More)
An antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin I, isolated from hemocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, increased the K+ permeability of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli cells, concomitantly reducing cell viability. At a higher concentration range, this peptide also enhanced the permeability of human erythrocytes. Tachyplesin decreased the(More)
We analyzed the photoinactivation of the membrane functions of bacteria and erythrocytes induced by xanthene dyes. The dyes tested were rose bengal, phloxine B, erythrosine B and eosin B. These dyes induced the leakage of K(+) from Staphylococcus aureus cells within minutes of photoirradiation, in the order of rose bengal > phloxine B > erythrosine B >(More)
Vibrio mimicus is a causative agent of human gastroenteritis. This pathogen secretes a pore-forming toxin, V. mimicus hemolysin (VMH), which causes hemolysis by three sequential steps: binding to an erythrocyte membrane, formation of a transmembrane pore, and disruption of the cell membrane. VMH with a molecular mass of 63 kDa was purified by ammonium(More)
We cloned a cDNA encoding a novel CYP2C enzyme, called P450 M-2C, from a marmoset liver. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identities to those of human CYP2C8 (87%), CYP2C9 (78%) and CYP2C19 (77%). The P450 M-2C enzyme expressed in yeast cells catalyzed p-methylhydroxylation of only tolbutamide among four substrates tested, paclitaxel as a CYP2C8(More)
The cytotoxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is involved in the formation of NSAID-induced gastric lesions. The mechanism(s) behind these cytotoxic effects, however, is not well understood. We found here that several NSAIDs tested caused hemolysis when employed at concentrations similar to those that result in cytotoxicity. Moreover,(More)