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Glia play an important role in neurotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor, and the effects of GLP-1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1beta mRNA expression and IL-1beta production in glia. GLP-1-like immunoreactivity was observed in amoeboid microglia,(More)
Growing evidence indicates that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system is central to the neurobiology and treatment of depression. Riluzole, a drug currently used to slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), directly affects the glutamatergic system. In this study, we investigated the effects of riluzole in olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)(More)
Previous studies in children with diabetes found that hyperglycemia induces memory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated memory and synaptic plasticity in streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic rats during the juvenile period. We further investigated the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on the diabetes-induced profiles. STZ (85 mg/kg, i.p.)(More)
In this study, we investigated whether glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) had antidepressant-like effects in mice, and whether these activities were associated with monoamine systems in mice. Antidepressant-like effects were evaluated based on the immobility time in the forced-swim test. GLP-2 (1.5-6 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) significantly reduced the immobility(More)
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) has been associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Ndrg2 expression in the brain is induced by glucocorticoid treatment or chronic stress in vivo. It has been postulated that glucocorticoid-induced Ndrg2 expression in astrocytes is regulated by the glucocorticoid response element half-site(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from the processing of proglucagon in intestinal L-cells and releases insulin from pancreatic β-cells as an incretin. The GLP-1 receptor has been proposed as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, in which neuroinflammation is critical in the pathogenesis. The present study(More)
AIM To analyze the relationship between the glycated albumin (GA) to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ratio and the histological grading of liver fibrosis. METHODS The study retrospectively included consecutive hepatitis C virus positive chronic liver disease patients (n = 142) who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy between January 2008 and March 2010 at(More)
AIM   Sonazoid is a new contrast agent for ultrasonography (US). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using Sonazoid enables Kupffer imaging, which improves the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection. However, there are no studies on the cost-effectiveness of HCC surveillance using Sonazoid. METHODS   We constructed a Markov model(More)
Extracellular concentrations of glutamate are mainly controlled by an astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1. We previously reported that exendin (5-39) (Ex), an antagonist of the GLP-1 receptor, improved memory impairment in β-amyloid protein-treated rats. In this study, we investigated effects of Ex on synaptic transmission through astrocytic GLT-1 in(More)