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We propose a method for extracting semantic orientations of words: desirable or undesirable. Regarding semantic ori-entations as spins of electrons, we use the mean field approximation to compute the approximate probability function of the system instead of the intractable actual probability function. We also propose a criterion for parameter selection on(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is well known as a mediator of inflammation. Hematopoietic PGD synthase (HPGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 involved in inflammatory responses. Microglial activation and astrogliosis are commonly observed during neuroinflammation, including that which occurs during demyelination. Using the genetic demyelination mouse(More)
Recent studies have revealed that the redox-sensitive glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is involved in neuronal cell death that is triggered by oxidative stress. GAPDH is locally deposited in disulfide-bonded aggregates at lesion sites in certain neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular(More)
In this paper, we deal with automatic knowledge acquisition from text, specifically the acquisition of <i>causal relations</i>. A causal relation is the relation existing between two events such that one event causes (or enables) the other event, such as &#8220;hard rain causes flooding&#8221; or &#8220;taking a train requires buying a ticket.&#8221; In(More)
In addition to its role in DNA repair, nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) mediates brain damage when it is over-activated by oxidative/nitrosative stress. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how PARP-1 is activated in neuropathological contexts. Here we report that PARP-1 interacts with a pool of glyceradehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) that(More)
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are classified as conformational neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, and they are caused by proteins with an abnormally expanded polyQ stretch. However, conformational changes of the expanded polyQ protein and the toxic conformers formed during aggregation have remained poorly understood despite(More)
The polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a class of inherited neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, caused by the expansion of a polyQ stretch within each disease protein. This expansion is thought to cause a conformational change in the protein leading to aggregation of the protein, resulting in cytotoxicity. To analyze whether(More)
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)(2) is a classic glycolytic enzyme that also mediates cell death by its nuclear translocation under oxidative stress. Meanwhile, we previously presented that oxidative stress induced disulfide-bonded GAPDH aggregation in vitro. Here, we propose that GAPDH aggregate formation might participate in oxidative(More)
We have previously shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in osteoclastic bone resorption by facilitating migration of osteoclastic cells toward bone surface through matrices. Of MMPs identified so far, MMP-9 is likely the most important proteinase for the action, since osteoclasts express this enzyme at a tremendously high level. However,(More)
The hyperthermostable chitinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus has a unique multidomain structure containing two chitin-binding domains and two catalytic domains, and exhibits strong crystalline chitin hydrolyzing activity at high temperature. In order to investigate the structure-function relationship of this chitinase, we analyzed(More)