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Acute encephalopathy is the most serious complication of pediatric viral infections, such as influenza and exanthem subitum. It occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in East Asia, and every year several hundreds of Japanese children are affected by influenza-associated encephalopathy. Mortality has recently declined, but is still high. Many survivors are(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and its C-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 modulate production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammation. We examined whether systemic alpha-MSH and alpha-MSH11-13 inhibit activation of the nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), a factor that is(More)
The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in(More)
With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)
Normal peripheral blood leukocytes, such as basophils, eosinophils, B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, have a cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor, while the cysteinyl leukotriene 2 (CysLT2) receptor is expressed in cardiac Purkinje cells, endothelium, brain and leukocytes. However, it is unknown whether or not platelets express the CysLT1 or(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
We investigated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 as proinflammatory cytokines in CSF to facilitate differentiation between acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and prolonged febrile seizures. We studied 20 children with prolonged febrile seizures and 23 with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy,(More)
BACKGROUND Montelukast is known as a cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor antagonist. However, the action of montelukast in terms of nuclear factor KB (NF-kappaB) activation and the production of proinflammatory molecules is unknown. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of montelukast. METHODS We examined whether montelukast(More)
Macrolide antibiotics modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. Transcription of the genes for these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We examined whether or not clarithromycin inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or staphylococcal(More)
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis in childhood that is associated with inflammatory cytokines, in which the vascular inflammation results in damage to the coronary arteries. The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) {1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)} exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we determined the mRNA and(More)