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Acute encephalopathy is the most serious complication of pediatric viral infections, such as influenza and exanthem subitum. It occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in East Asia, and every year several hundreds of Japanese children are affected by influenza-associated encephalopathy. Mortality has recently declined, but is still high. Many survivors are(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute illness of early childhood characterized by prolonged fever, diffuse mucosal inflammation, indurative oedema of the hands and feet, a polymorphous skin rash and nonsuppurative lymphadenopathy. The histopathological findings in KD comprise panvasculitis with endothelial necrosis, and the infiltration of mononuclear cells(More)
Macrolide antibiotics modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. Transcription of the genes for these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We examined whether or not clarithromycin inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or staphylococcal(More)
It is known that rotavirus gastroenteritis can accompany some neurological manifestations, including encephalitis/encephalopathy or seizures. However, the detailed pathogenesis involved has not been fully understood. To date, acute cerebellitis associated rotavirus gastroenteritis has not been previously reported, except for one case. Herein, we describe(More)
The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in(More)
The local immune response to echovirus 30 meningitis in children was investigated in 2 ways: using flow cytometry to examine the mononuclear cell and lymphocyte subsets and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to examine the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines, including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and its C-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 modulate production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammation. We examined whether systemic alpha-MSH and alpha-MSH11-13 inhibit activation of the nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), a factor that is(More)
Normal peripheral blood leukocytes, such as basophils, eosinophils, B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, have a cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor, while the cysteinyl leukotriene 2 (CysLT2) receptor is expressed in cardiac Purkinje cells, endothelium, brain and leukocytes. However, it is unknown whether or not platelets express the CysLT1 or(More)
With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)