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Acute encephalopathy is the most serious complication of pediatric viral infections, such as influenza and exanthem subitum. It occurs worldwide, but is most prevalent in East Asia, and every year several hundreds of Japanese children are affected by influenza-associated encephalopathy. Mortality has recently declined, but is still high. Many survivors are(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and its C-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 modulate production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammation. We examined whether systemic alpha-MSH and alpha-MSH11-13 inhibit activation of the nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), a factor that is(More)
With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)
We investigated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 as proinflammatory cytokines in CSF to facilitate differentiation between acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and prolonged febrile seizures. We studied 20 children with prolonged febrile seizures and 23 with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy,(More)
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis in childhood that is associated with inflammatory cytokines, in which the vascular inflammation results in damage to the coronary arteries. The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) {1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)} exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we determined the mRNA and(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue and in peripheral inflammatory cells. Transcription of the genes for these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). NF-kappaB is also activated by proinflammatory cytokines. Degradation(More)
Three children ranging in age from 2 to 5 years with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) were successfully treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Their symptoms were somnolence, fever, headache, vomiting, and resting tremor. In all of these patients, it was difficult to distinguish the condition from viral encephalitis before(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
In multiple sclerosis, there have been many reports on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). However, MMPs and TIMPs have not been reported in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). We determined the relationship between the serum concentrations of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and activity of lesions on MRI in 14 patients with ADEM(More)
Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) inhibits the action of TNF-alpha. The level of sTNF-R reflects the true biological activity of TNF-alpha. We investigated whether sTNF-R in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum increases during the acute stage in patients with acute encephalitis by measuring p60 sTNF-R using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The(More)