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The first CO 2 exposure experiments on several species of pelagic copepods inhabiting surface and deep layers in the western North Pacific were conducted. Living organisms were collected from two layers between the surface and 1,500 m between latitudes of 11 and 44°N, and they were exposed aboard ship to various pCO 2 up to about 98,000 µ µ µ µ µatm.(More)
PURPOSE We conceived a 2-stage heating method to dissolve the ingredients of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging phantoms to overcome issues of uneven quality in conventional MR imaging phantoms, and we evaluated uniformity and the reproducibility of our method. METHODS We used a 3-liter capacity, column-shaped, enamel-coated porcelain container to produce a(More)
PURPOSE A 3.0-T MRI phantom (called the CAGN-3.0T phantom) having human-equivalent relaxation times and human-equivalent conductivity was developed. METHODS The ingredients of the phantom are carrageenan (as a gelatinizer), agarose (as a T2-relaxation modifier), GdCl3 (as a T1-relaxation modifier), NaCl (as a conductivity modifier), and NaN3 (as an(More)
In proton density-weighted (PDW) MR imaging, the patterns of signal intensity vary depending on the imaged material, and change with the flip angle (FA) applied to the imaged material. The correlation between the pre-determined FA and the actual FA applied to imaged objects was investigated using 4 types of phantoms having different dielectric properties.(More)
PURPOSE A 3.0-T MRI phantom having human-tissue-equivalent relaxation times was developed. METHODS The ingredients of the phantom are carrageenan (for gelatinization), GdCl(3) (as a T(1)-relaxation modifier), agarose (as a T(2)-relaxation modifier), and NaN(3) (as an antiseptic agent). Numerous samples with varying concentrations of GdCl(3) and agarose(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualization of metallic stent lumens is possible if the stent structure counteracts eddy currents in the lumen induced by the radio frequency magnetic field, B(1). To examine the effectiveness of various stent designs in counteracting eddy currents, we anchored eight copper stent models and 2 commercially available(More)
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