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Quality adjustment weights for quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are available with the EQ-5D Instrument, which are based on a survey that quantified the preferences of the British public. However, the extent to which this British value set is applicable to other, especially non-European, countries is yet unclear. The objectives of this study are (a) to(More)
Although the threshold of cost effectiveness of medical interventions is thought to be 20 000- 30 000 UK pounds in the UK, and $50 000-$100 000 in the US, it is well known that these values are unjustified, due to lack of explicit scientific evidence. We measured willingness-to-pay (WTP) for one additional quality-adjusted life-year gained to determine the(More)
Accurate voice activity detection (VAD) is important for robust automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. This paper proposes a statistical-model-based noise-robust VAD algorithm using long-term temporal information and harmonic-structure-based features in speech. Long-term temporal information has recently become an ASR focus, but has not yet been deeply(More)
Staphyloxanthin, a yellow pigment produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a virulent factor escaping from the host immune system. A new screening method for inhibitors of staphyloxanthin production by MRSA was established using paper disks. By this screening method, inhibitors of staphyloxanthin production were selected from the(More)
Two new furopyrrols, designated tensidols A and B, were isolated from the culture broth of Aspergillus niger FKI-2342 by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. Their structures were elucidated and shown to have the common skeleton of 6-benzyl-6H-furo[2,3-b]pyrrole. Tensidols A and B potentiated miconazole activity against Candida(More)
Techniques for estimating gaze without restricting user movements are highly desired for their potential applications. Although commercial gaze estimation systems achieve high accuracy using infrared light, gaze estimation systems with webcams have become indispensable because of their low price. The problem using webcams is that their resolution is too low(More)
Deletion mutants of the carrot phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene promoter were used to survey cis-elements for their effect on expression of promoter activity by transient expression. Two putative cis-elements were required to give full activity, but a third might be the most important in regulation of the promoter by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.
BACKGROUND Rapid progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). New treatment regimens for mCRC include not only cytotoxic chemotherapy but also targeted monoclonal antibodies, including bevacizumab. However, bevacizumab is an expensive medication, which costs from 300,000 yen to 400,000 yen (US $2500-$3300) per month. (More)