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FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is expressed in the vasculature of cotyledons and leaves. A bZIP transcription factor, FD, preferentially expressed in the shoot apex is required for FT to promote(More)
Heading date 3a (Hd3a) has been detected as a heading-date-related quantitative trait locus in a cross between rice cultivars Nipponbare and Kasalath. A previous study revealed that the Kasalath allele of Hd3a promotes heading under short-day (SD) conditions. High-resolution linkage mapping located the Hd3a locus in a approximately 20-kb genomic region. In(More)
Postembryonic development of plants depends on the activity of apical meristems established during embryogenesis. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the root apical meristem (RAM) have similar but distinct cellular organization. Arabidopsis FASCIATA1 (FAS1) and FAS2 genes maintain the cellular and functional organization of both SAM and RAM, and FAS gene(More)
Many organisms rely on a circadian clock system to adapt to daily and seasonal environmental changes. The mammalian circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that has tightly coupled neurons and synchronizes other clocks in peripheral tissues. Plants also have a circadian clock, but plant circadian clock function has long(More)
Successful sexual reproduction of a plant with prolific seed production requires appropriate timing of flowering and concomitant change of architecture (e.g. internode elongation and branching) to facilitate production of the optimal number of flowers while enabling continued resource production through photosynthesis. Florigen is the prime candidate for a(More)
We introduce quaternion encryption scheme (QES) as a means to secure signal transmission over wireless networks that are vulnerable to attacks. Sampling data of the signal are formulated in a 3-D vector space and are rotated by another key vector space parameter using quaternion representation. Quaternion is used to generate four-dimensional encryption(More)
Light is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the timing of a plant's transition from the vegetative to reproductive, or flowering, phase. Not only daylength but also the spectrum of light greatly affect flowering. The shade of nearby vegetation reduces the ratio of red to far-red light and can trigger shade avoidance responses,(More)
The late-flowering phenotype of dominant fwa mutants is caused by hypomethylation in the FWA locus leading to ectopic expression of a homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) protein. However, little is known about whether FWA has any role in regulation of flowering and how ectopically expressed FWA delays flowering. Through analysis of FWA expression in(More)
The proper timing of flowering is of crucial importance for reproductive success of plants. Regulation of flowering is orchestrated by inputs from both environmental and endogenous signals such as daylength, light quality, temperature and hormones, and key flowering regulators construct several parallel and interactive genetic pathways. This integrative(More)
Appropriate timing of flowering is critical for reproductive success and necessarily involves complex genetic regulatory networks. A mobile floral signal, called florigen, is a key molecule in this process, and flowering locus T (FT) protein is its major component in Arabidopsis. FT is produced in leaves, but promotes the floral transition in the shoot(More)