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FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is expressed in the vasculature of cotyledons and leaves. A bZIP transcription factor, FD, preferentially expressed in the shoot apex is required for FT to promote(More)
Postembryonic development of plants depends on the activity of apical meristems established during embryogenesis. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the root apical meristem (RAM) have similar but distinct cellular organization. Arabidopsis FASCIATA1 (FAS1) and FAS2 genes maintain the cellular and functional organization of both SAM and RAM, and FAS gene(More)
Many organisms rely on a circadian clock system to adapt to daily and seasonal environmental changes. The mammalian circadian clock consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus that has tightly coupled neurons and synchronizes other clocks in peripheral tissues. Plants also have a circadian clock, but plant circadian clock function has long(More)
We introduce quaternion encryption scheme (QES) as a means to secure signal transmission over wireless networks that are vulnerable to attacks. Sampling data of the signal are formulated in a 3-D vector space and are rotated by another key vector space parameter using quaternion representation. Quaternion is used to generate four-dimensional encryption(More)
Light is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the timing of a plant's transition from the vegetative to reproductive, or flowering, phase. Not only daylength but also the spectrum of light greatly affect flowering. The shade of nearby vegetation reduces the ratio of red to far-red light and can trigger shade avoidance responses,(More)
The late-flowering phenotype of dominant fwa mutants is caused by hypomethylation in the FWA locus leading to ectopic expression of a homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) protein. However, little is known about whether FWA has any role in regulation of flowering and how ectopically expressed FWA delays flowering. Through analysis of FWA expression in(More)
The proper timing of flowering is of crucial importance for reproductive success of plants. Regulation of flowering is orchestrated by inputs from both environmental and endogenous signals such as daylength, light quality, temperature and hormones, and key flowering regulators construct several parallel and interactive genetic pathways. This integrative(More)
Appropriate timing of flowering is critical for reproductive success and necessarily involves complex genetic regulatory networks. A mobile floral signal, called florigen, is a key molecule in this process, and flowering locus T (FT) protein is its major component in Arabidopsis. FT is produced in leaves, but promotes the floral transition in the shoot(More)
The paper introduces a new paradigm for public key cryptography, which is called quadripartite public-key (QPK) based on quaternion presentation. We considered a private key as a unit quaternion which has an arbitrary quadruple of real numbers. The public key has three different components which are constructed using a quaternion rotation matrix (QRM) to(More)
Plants use various kinds of environmental signals to adjust the timing of the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase (flowering). Since flowering at the appropriate time is crucial for plant reproductive strategy, several kinds of photoreceptors are deployed to sense environmental light conditions. In this review, we will update our current(More)