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Although peripheral nerves can regenerate after injury, proximal nerve injury in humans results in minimal restoration of motor function. One possible explanation for this is that injury-induced axonal growth is too slow. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a regeneration-associated protein that accelerates axonal growth in vitro. Here, we have shown that it(More)
Axon regeneration in the CNS requires reactivating injured neurons' intrinsic growth state and enabling growth in an inhibitory environment. Using an inbred mouse neuronal phenotypic screen, we find that CAST/Ei mouse adult dorsal root ganglion neurons extend axons more on CNS myelin than the other eight strains tested, especially when pre-injured.(More)
1. The modulatory effect of alpha 2 adrenoceptor on the taurine response was investigated in substantia nigra (SN) neurons acutely dissociated from the rat using a nystatin perforated-patch recording mode under voltage-clamp conditions. 2. Complete cross-desensitization was observed between 10(-3) M glycine and 3 x 10(-3) M taurine-induced currents. Both(More)
The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in(More)
Nogo-A and Nogo-receptor have been considered to play pivotal roles in controlling axonal regeneration and neuronal plasticity. We investigated the total distribution of Nogo-A and Nogo-receptor mRNAs in the adult rat central nervous system using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Nogo-A is abundantly expressed in both neurons and oligodendrocytes(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate quantitatively the temporal and spatial regulation and the morphological changes of the recruit and resident macrophages in the sciatic nerve during Wallerian degeneration and the following regeneration using immunohistochemistry. Sciatic nerves in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were examined after nerve crush. The(More)
The purpose of this study is to reveal whether the application of immunohistochemical examinations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be a reliable method for the quantitative analysis of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) and the relationship between restoration of BNB and nerve regeneration. Sciatic nerves in rats were examined after nerve crush.(More)
Repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb) is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor and sensitizer of BMP signaling, highly expressed in adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. We used a murine RGMb knock-out to gain insight into the physiological role of RGMb in the DRG, and address whether RGMb-mediated modulation of BMP signaling influences(More)
The interleukin (IL)-6 pathway plays an important role in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The anti-IL-6 receptor antibody MR16-1 has been shown to suppress inflammation after SCI and promote recovery of motor function. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of MR16-1 on the expression patterns of phospholipids in the spinal cord in a(More)
The effects of virol A (VA), a toxic component of Cicuta virosa (water hemlock), on the GABA-induced Cl(-) current (I(GABA)) in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal CA1 neurons were investigated using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. VA reversibly reduced I(GABA) and the muscimol (Mus)-induced current (I(Mus)) in a concentration-dependent manner. The(More)