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This paper uses matched employer-employee panel data to show that individual job satisfaction is higher when other workers in the same establishment are better-paid. This runs contrary to a large literature which has found evidence of income comparisons in subjective well-being. We argue that the difference hinges on the nature of the reference group. We(More)
provided us with advice and encouragement on our research program on executive compensation in China in general. The paper also benefited from comments and suggestions from participants at the Public Economic Theory Annual Meeting 2004 (Beijing), at the Economics Department seminar in Wesleyan University, and at the Department of Agricultural and Resource(More)
Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of the institute. Research disseminated by IZA may include views on policy, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Bonn is a local and virtual international research center and a place of communication between(More)
AIMS Heart failure (HF) is associated with changes in energy metabolism of the heart, as well as in extra-cardiac organs such as the skeletal muscles. Cardiac cachexia is a common complication and is associated with poor prognosis. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) reportedly improve sarcopenia and cancer cachexia. We tested the hypothesis that BCAA(More)
Metastasis-associated protein, S100A4 is suggested as a marker for fibrosis in several organs. It also modulates DNA binding of p53 and affects its function. However, the functional role of S100A4 in the myocardium has remained unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of S100A4 and its relationship with p53 in cardiac fibrosis. In Dahl-rat hypertensive(More)
BACKGROUND Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a change in cardiac energy metabolism. However, the mechanism by which this change is induced and causes the progression of CHF is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS We analyzed the cardiac energy metabolism of Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a high-salt diet, which showed a distinct transition from(More)
Heart failure is associated with a change in cardiac energy metabolism. SIRT1 is a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, and important in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. To examine the role of SIRT1 in cardiac energy metabolism, we created transgenic mice overexpressing SIRT1 in a cardiac-specific manner, and investigated cardiac functional(More)
We provide the first econometric study of efficiency for a member of the Mondragon group of worker cooperatives. Eroski is a retail distribution chain and, most unusually, there are two distinct types of hypermarkets: (i) cooperatives with significant employee ownership and voice; and (ii) GESPAs with modest employee ownership and limited voice. For(More)
Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is an oral mucosal blood blister that develops without blood dyscrasia or vesiculobullous disorder. Although a minor mucosal trauma has been suggested as a triggering factor for ABH, its etiopathogenesis, especially the causative role of systemic conditions, is largely unknown. We investigated the presence or absence of(More)
This study was undertaken to investigate the associations of blood vessel invasion (BVI), lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) or other variables and long-term survival in 173 Japanese and 184 British patients with primary invasive breast cancer, and whether they are associated with survival differences between Japanese and British patients. BVI was detected by(More)