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We established granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent murine microglial clones and investigated the immune properties of four individual clones. All four clones expressed MHC class I and CD54 (ICAM-1) at similar levels. The 5-2, Ra2, and 6-3 clones expressed CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and MHC class II at low, medium, and high(More)
OBJECT Temozolomide (TMZ) is a DNA alkylating agent currently used as adjuvant treatment for anaplastic astrocytomas. Its use in managing glioblastoma multiforme has been halted because of the lack of therapeutic effects due to cell resistance. Note that O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltranferase (AGT) is a DNA repair enzyme that limits the efficacy of TMZ. In(More)
OBJECT Ionizing radiation is the gold-standard adjuvant treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor. The mechanisms underlying neoplastic glial cell growth inhibition after administration of ionizing radiation, however, remain largely unknown. In this report, the authors characterize the response of GBM cells to(More)
Malignant gliomas highly coexpress platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor, suggesting the presence of an autocrine loop. Therefore, disruption of PDGF ligand/receptor complex represents a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant gliomas. However, the mechanisms of the antitumour effect exerted by the inhibition of PDGF-mediated cell(More)
Temozolomide (TMZ, 3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazo [5,1-d]-as-tetrazine-8-carboxamide) is a new alkylating agent with promising antitumour efficacy for malignant gliomas. The resistance of tumour cells to TMZ is primarily associated with levels of the alkylguanine alkyltransferase (AGT). O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG), an inhibitor for AGT, reduced(More)
Although hyperthermia has been used as a treatment of malignant brain tumors, it is not yet clear what is the mechanism of the cell growth inhibition by heat shock, especially by the temperature which has clinically been applied to tumor-brain border-zone, 42-43 degrees C. Therefore, we evaluated the change of U251-MG and U87-MG human malignant glioma cells(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) are considered as novel anticancer agents because of their ability to induce growth arrest or apoptosis in tumour cells. It has not yet been fully determined, however, which CDKI is the best candidate for the treatment of malignant gliomas and whether normal brain tissues are affected by CDKI expression. Using(More)
Malignant gliomas are the most common neoplasm in the central nervous system. When treated with conventional treatments including surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, the average life expectancy of the most malignant type, glioblastoma multiforme is usually less than 1 year. Therefore, gene therapy is expected to be an effective and possibly curative(More)
We describe the case of 47-year-old man with a cystic, melanotic temporal lobe astrocytoma who had a history of complex partial seizures. The tumor mass was made up of two histologically different regions: one consisted of spindle-shaped and pleomorphic cells often with foamy or vacuolated cytoplasm, while the other consisted of fairly uniform(More)