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Autophagy is originally named as a process of protein recycling. It begins with sequestering cytoplasmic organelles in a membrane vacuole called autophagosome. Autophagosomes then fuse with lysosomes, where the materials inside are degraded and recycled. To date, however, little is known about the role of autophagy in cancer therapy. In this study, we(More)
We established granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent murine microglial clones and investigated the immune properties of four individual clones. All four clones expressed MHC class I and CD54 (ICAM-1) at similar levels. The 5-2, Ra2, and 6-3 clones expressed CD80 (B7-1), CD86 (B7-2), and MHC class II at low, medium, and high(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway and a central modulator of cell proliferation in malignant gliomas. Therefore, the targeting of mTOR signaling is considered a promising therapy for malignant gliomas. However, the mechanisms underlying the(More)
Recent clinical data shows that arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) causes remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma without severe side effects. Laboratory data suggest that As(2)O(3) induces apoptosis or cell differentiation of hematopoietic or solid tumor cells. To date, there has been no study on the effects of As(2)O(3) on(More)
OBJECT Temozolomide (TMZ) is a DNA alkylating agent currently used as adjuvant treatment for anaplastic astrocytomas. Its use in managing glioblastoma multiforme has been halted because of the lack of therapeutic effects due to cell resistance. Note that O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltranferase (AGT) is a DNA repair enzyme that limits the efficacy of TMZ. In(More)
OBJECT Ionizing radiation is the gold-standard adjuvant treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumor. The mechanisms underlying neoplastic glial cell growth inhibition after administration of ionizing radiation, however, remain largely unknown. In this report, the authors characterize the response of GBM cells to(More)
Malignant gliomas highly coexpress platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor, suggesting the presence of an autocrine loop. Therefore, disruption of PDGF ligand/receptor complex represents a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant gliomas. However, the mechanisms of the antitumour effect exerted by the inhibition of PDGF-mediated cell(More)
Temozolomide (TMZ, 3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazo [5,1-d]-as-tetrazine-8-carboxamide) is a new alkylating agent with promising antitumour efficacy for malignant gliomas. The resistance of tumour cells to TMZ is primarily associated with levels of the alkylguanine alkyltransferase (AGT). O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG), an inhibitor for AGT, reduced(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) are considered as novel anticancer agents because of their ability to induce growth arrest or apoptosis in tumour cells. It has not yet been fully determined, however, which CDKI is the best candidate for the treatment of malignant gliomas and whether normal brain tissues are affected by CDKI expression. Using(More)
Although hyperthermia has been used as a treatment of malignant brain tumors, it is not yet clear what is the mechanism of the cell growth inhibition by heat shock, especially by the temperature which has clinically been applied to tumor-brain border-zone, 42-43 degrees C. Therefore, we evaluated the change of U251-MG and U87-MG human malignant glioma cells(More)