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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play critical roles at various stages in endochondral bone formation. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Smad7 regulates transforming growth factor-beta and BMP signals by inhibiting Smad pathways in chondrocytes. However, the in vivo roles of Smad7 during cartilage development are unknown. To investigate distinct(More)
Synthetic porous ceramic made of hydroxyapatite (HA) has been used as a bone graft substitute. In the present study we investigated whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates bone ingrowth into the pores of HA ceramic. Application of LIPUS did not mechanically weaken porous ceramic that was immersed in water in vitro. In vivo experiments(More)
This investigation reports on the first appearance of hatching glands during embryonic development of Clupea harengus. It provides information on morphological gland detail and documents the distribution of the glands on the embryo as well as their total number and disappearance after hatching. The first hatching glands occur after the beginning of eye(More)
Although transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been implicated in cartilage formation in various studies, the exact role played by TGF-β in this process remains controversial. TGF-β signals are transduced through TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRΙΙ) and type I receptor (ALK5). Col2a1-Cre-mediated deletion of Tgfbr2 did not cause obvious defects in(More)
OBJECTIVE The discovery of small molecular compounds that expand cartilage is needed. We searched for small molecular compounds that expand cartilage or enhance the actions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on cartilage. DESIGN Metatarsal primordial cartilage explants prepared from 14.5 days postcoitum (d.p.c.) mouse embryos were organ-cultured in the(More)
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