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In diverse eukaryotic organisms, Dicer-processed, virus-derived small interfering RNAs direct antiviral immunity by RNA silencing or RNA interference. Here we show that in addition to core dicing and slicing components of RNAi, the RNAi-mediated viral immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana requires host RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RDR) 1 or RDR6 to produce viral(More)
We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus(More)
 A new viroid was obtained from a viroid sample, named ‘OS’, collected from a citrus plant. The viroid consists of 330–331 nucleotides, contains the central conserved region (CCR) characteristic of the genus Apscaviroid, and has the highest sequence similarity (only 68%) with Citrus III viroid (CVd-III) among known viroids. This viroid, by itself, caused(More)
Estrogen, if it is produced in the gastrointestinal tract, may overflow into the systemic circulation in the case of increased portal-systemic shunting. This idea is in accord with a significant step-up in serum estradiol (E2) concentration in the portal vein of rats, compared with that in the artery. Gene expression of aromatase, estrogen synthetase, was(More)
This paper presents a novel regularity evaluation of placement structure and MOS analog specific layout techniques called diffusion sharing and well island generation, which are developed based on Sequence-Pair. The regular structures such as topological row, array and repetitive structure are characterized by the way of forming subsequences of a(More)
Pharmacological effects of a novel opioid receptor-like1 (ORL(1)) receptor antagonist, [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxymethyl) benzamide monohydrochloride] (JTC-801), were examined in in vitro and in vivo. JTC-801 inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-nociceptin to human ORL(1) receptors expressed in HeLa cells with a K(i) value of 44.5 nM.(More)
 Sequencing analyses showed a population of variants consisting of 325–330 nucleotides (nt) of a viroid closely related to citrus viroid (CVd)-I in citrus plants. These variants, for which we propose the tentative acronym CVd-I-LSS (low sequence similarity), have only 82–85% sequence similarities to CVd-I variants. A phylogenetic tree showed that the(More)
Disturbance of the microcirculation and generation of reactive oxygen species are crucial in producing acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML). To understand the protective mechanism against mucosal injury and oxidative stress in the stomach, we investigated sequential expression and localization of a product of lipid peroxidation and a chemical mediator of(More)
Previously, we reported that morning bright light therapy improved sleep time and cognitive function in Alzheimer type of dementia. We conducted a double blind study to examine the effects of melatonin on the sleep-wake rhythm, cognitive and non-cognitive functions in Alzheimer type of dementia. The subjects were 9 persons given a placebo (PLA), and 11(More)
ABSTRACT Sequential polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses showed many viroid-like RNAs in samples collected from citrus trees in Japan. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analyses of the amplified fragments verified that they were derived from variants of six citrus viroids, Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf(More)