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Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to(More)
Although genetic characteristics are considered to be a factor influencing the geographic variation in the prevalence of gallbladder cancer (GBC), they have not been well studied in Bolivia, which has a high prevalence rate of GBC. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of TP53 and K-ras mutations in Bolivian patients with GBC and to compare(More)
Determining the accurate rate of human parasite infections is of great importance in developing a strategy to prevent the infections. We aimed to demonstrate the parasite infection rates in people living in a high altitude area of La Paz, Bolivia. Feces were collected from 301 people, but 274 (137 males and 137 females) were considered as our study subjects(More)
Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), and G1(AFG1) have been detected in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) as shown in our previous studies (Tsuchiya el al., 2011; Asai et al., 2012). The association between exposure to AFB1 and the development of liver cancer had already been(More)
A high level of consumption of red chili peppers was demonstrated to be an environmental risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chilean women who carry gallstones (GS) in a previous epidemiological study (Serra et al., 2002). However, the pathogenic mechanism by which GBC occurs through red chili pepper consumption in the presence of GS remains(More)
The Plurinational State of Bolivia (Bolivia) has a high incidence rate of gallbladder cancer (GBC). However, the genetic and environmental risk factors for GBC development are not well understood. We aimed to assess whether or not cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), theta 1 (GSTT1) and tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53)(More)
Our recent studies conducted in South America have shown that mycotoxin contamination of red chili peppers (RCPs) may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Whether this relationship exists in India, a country with a high incidence of GBC and high consumption of RCPs, is unclear. We therefore measured concentrations of aflatoxins(More)
Bolivia is one of the countries with a high intestinal helminth and protozoan infection rate. Despite the high prevalence of the parasitic infection, nationwide preventive measures for Bolivian children have not yet been implemented. We evaluated the effect of mass stool examination and treatment as a strategy for decreasing the infection rate. This study(More)
Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the(More)
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