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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a small polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion (control: 4-20Q; SCA6: 20-33Q) in the carboxyl(C)-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the alpha(1A) voltage-dependent calcium channel (Ca(v)2.1). Although a 75-85-kDa Ca(v)2.1 C-terminal fragment (CTF) is toxic in cultured(More)
As a generator of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) is widely used in the study of oxidative/nitrosative stress in cultured cells, although controversy exists regarding active species responsible for cytotoxicity. In this study, we report that unstable thiol-sensitive substances, generated from the reaction of SIN-1 with components in(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic inflammatory skin disease characterized by elevation of plasma levels of total IgE, infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils, and the expression of cytokines by Th2 T cells. However, the role of Th2 cells in the pathogenesis of AD is not fully understood. In this study we examined the NC/Nga (NC) mouse model of AD and(More)
p94/calpain 3 is a skeletal muscle-specific Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine protease (calpain), and genetic loss of p94 protease activity causes muscular dystrophy (calpainopathy). In addition, a small in-frame deletion in the N2A region of connectin/titin that impairs p94-connectin interaction causes a severe muscular dystrophy (mdm) in mice. Since p94 via its(More)
The qualitative nature of an immune response raised against infectious pathogens depends upon the phenotypes of T(h) cell subsets, which secrete distinct types of cytokines. Genetic background is known to greatly influence the nature of the T(h) cell response. However, the precise nature of this influence still remains unclear. In the present study, we(More)
We raised monoclonal antibodies against senile plaque (SP) amyloid and obtained a clone 9D2, which labeled amyloid fibrils in SPs and reacted with approximately 50/100 kDa polypeptides in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. We purified the 9D2 antigens and cloned a cDNA encoding its precursor, which was a novel type II transmembrane protein specifically(More)
BACKGROUND Intracytoplasmic inclusions composed of filamentous tau proteins are defining characteristics of neurodegenerative tauopathies, but it remains unclear why different tau isoforms accumulate in different diseases and how they induce abnormal filamentous structures and pathologies. Two tau isoform-specific antibodies, RD3 and RD4, are widely used(More)
Differentiation of PC12 cells has been quantified by measurement of neurite length. However, this procedure is not suitable for large numbers of samples, for example in 96-well tissue culture plates. For this reason, we established three simple and quantitative methods for nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells cultured in 96-well plates.(More)
We synthesized a series of neoechinulin A derivatives and examined the structure-activity relationships in terms of their anti-nitration and anti-oxidant activities as well as their cytoprotective activity against peroxynitrite from SIN-1 (3-(4-morpholinyl)sydnonimine hydrochloride) using PC12 cells. Our results showed that the C-8/C-9 double bond, which(More)