Takao Arai

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Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) purified from rat brain. In immunoblot analyses of purified or partially purified A1R preparations from rat brain, these antibodies recognized a solitary band, the size of which corresponded to that expected for A1R. These antibodies recognized not only the native form of A1R but(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a small polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion (control: 4-20Q; SCA6: 20-33Q) in the carboxyl(C)-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the alpha(1A) voltage-dependent calcium channel (Ca(v)2.1). Although a 75-85-kDa Ca(v)2.1 C-terminal fragment (CTF) is toxic in cultured(More)
BACKGROUND Intracytoplasmic inclusions composed of filamentous tau proteins are defining characteristics of neurodegenerative tauopathies, but it remains unclear why different tau isoforms accumulate in different diseases and how they induce abnormal filamentous structures and pathologies. Two tau isoform-specific antibodies, RD3 and RD4, are widely used(More)
Fez-like (Fezl), the forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like protein, is a transcriptional repressor selectively expressed in the deep layers of the developing cortex. We examined the thalamocortical and corticofugal pathways in Fezl-deficient fetal mice by using immunohistochemistry and by axonal labeling with the lipophilic dyes DiI and DiA, with special(More)
Differentiation of PC12 cells has been quantified by measurement of neurite length. However, this procedure is not suitable for large numbers of samples, for example in 96-well tissue culture plates. For this reason, we established three simple and quantitative methods for nerve growth factor-induced differentiation of PC12 cells cultured in 96-well plates.(More)
The mechanism of protein S-nitrosation in cells is not fully understood. Using rat 3Y1 cells, we addressed this issue. Among S-nitrosothiols and NO donors tested, only S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO) induced S-nitrosation when exposed in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and not in serum-containing general culture medium. In HBSS, NO release from CysNO was(More)
Presence of cytoplasmic tau aggregates is a hallmark of brains in patients with tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism underlying formation of these insoluble tau aggregates remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the impact of prolonged nitric oxide (NO) exposure on neuronal SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing human tau. Treatment(More)
3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) is used as a donor of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in various studies. We demonstrated, however, that, the cell-culture medium remains cytotoxic to PC12 cells even after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition, suggesting that reaction product(s) in the medium, rather than ONOO(-), exert cytotoxic effects. Here, we clarified that(More)
We developed an efficient, stereoselective synthetic method for the diketopiperazine moiety of neoechinulin A and its derivatives. The intramolecular cyclization at 80 ºC proceeded with minimal racemization of the stereogenic center at C-12 on neoechinulin A, even though the cyclization at 110 ºC caused partial racemization. In contrast with these results,(More)
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