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1. A method for adapting a standard stereotaxic frame for use with neonatal rats as young as postnatal day 1 (PD 1) was devised, and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from neurons in the locus ceruleus (LC) in urethan-anesthetized rats during different stages in development from PD 1 to PD 34. 2. The spontaneous firing pattern of neonatal(More)
To investigate how illuminance and color temperature in illumination affect the autonomic nervous system and central nervous system in conditions tending to lower physiological activity, and with an ordinary residential setting in mind, we performed an experiment on 8 healthy male subjects. The experimental conditions consisted of 4 conditions provided by a(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS To determine the functional role of immune mediators in the formation of the intestinal barrier, we have examined the regulation of claudin expression by interleukin (IL)-17 in human intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS Expression of claudins, extracellular signal-related (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and activated ERK(More)
The establishment of tight junctions (TJ) between columnar epithelial cells defines the functional barrier, which enteroinvasive pathogens have to overcome. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) directly invades intestinal epithelial cells but it is not well understood how the pathogen is able to overcome the intestinal barrier and gains(More)
We have sequenced the entire genome of a virulent field isolate of Sendai virus, the Hamamatsu strain, and compared the sequence with that of a distant related strain, the Z strain. Calculation of synonymous and non-synonymous (amino acid changing) nucleotide substitutions revealed regions where changes were permissive and non-permissive, and the(More)
The medaka is becoming an attractive model organism for the study of vertebrate early development and organogenesis and large-scale mutagenesis projects that are aimed at creating developmentally defective mutants are now being conducted by several groups in Japan. To strengthen the study of medaka developmental genetics, we have conducted a large-scale(More)
Shigella spp. are a group of Gram-negative enteric bacilli that cause acute dysentery in humans. We demonstrate that Shigella flexneri has evolved the ability to regulate functional components of tight junctions after interaction at the apical and basolateral pole of model intestinal epithelia. In the regulation of tight junctional protein assemblies, S.(More)
The diameter and conduction velocity of myelinated fibers in the sciatic nerve isolated from neurofilament-deficient quail ('quiver') were compared with those from wild quail. The diameter was significantly reduced in quiver, however, the frequency distribution formed three peaks as did that observed in the wild. The fibers were categorized in three groups(More)
The popularity of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of tissue samples, which enables the direct scanning of tissue sections within a short time-period, has been considerably increasing in cancer proteomics. Most pathological specimens stored in medical institutes are formalin-fixed; thus, they had been regarded to be unsuitable for proteomic analyses,(More)