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This paper describes a mathematical model of a rubberless pneumatic artificial muscle. This artificial muscle has characteristics resembling those of a McKibben-type artificial muscle. Because of its exclusion of rubber material, however, the rubberless artificial muscle can be driven by low pressure. Although it uses a braided mesh similar to that of a… (More)
The mechanism of FWM (four-wave mixing) by ISBT (inter-sub-band transition) in InGaAs/AlAsSb QWs (quantum wells) is analyzed theoretically. The estimated values of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibility are sufficient for coherent wavelength conversion.