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It has been known that leaves exposed to high light contain more L-ascorbic acid (AsA) than those in the shade. However, the mechanism of the light regulation of the AsA pool size in plants is largely unknown. In this work, the relationship between gene expression levels related to AsA biosynthesis and photosynthesis have been studied. When 2-week-old(More)
The D-mannose/L-galactose pathway for the biosynthesis of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid; AsA) has greatly improved the understanding of this indispensable compound in plants, where it plays multifunctional roles. However, it is yet to be proven whether the same pathway holds for all the different organs of plants, especially the fruit-bearing plants, at(More)
Heat shock transcription factor A2 (HsfA2) acts as a key component of the Hsf signaling network involved in cellular responses to various types of environmental stress. However, the mechanism governing the regulation of HsfA2 expression is still largely unknown. We demonstrated here that a heat shock element (HSE) cluster in the 5'-flanking region of the(More)
Ascorbate (AsA) is a redox buffer and enzyme cofactor with various proposed functions in stress responses and growth. The aim was to identify genes whose transcript levels respond to changes in leaf AsA. The AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc2-1 was incubated with the AsA precursor L-galactono-1,4-lactone (L-GalL) to increase leaf AsA concentration.(More)
The phytoflagellated protozoan, Euglena gracilis, has been proposed as an attractive feedstock for the accumulation of valuable compounds such as β-1,3-glucan, also known as paramylon, and wax esters. The production of wax esters proceeds under anaerobic conditions, designated as wax ester fermentation. In spite of the importance and usefulness of Euglena,(More)
Vitamin E (tocopherol: Toc) is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant synthesized in chloroplasts. Among the 8 isoforms of vitamin E, α-Toc has the highest activity in humans. To generate transgenic plants with enhanced vitamin E activity, we applied a chloroplast transformation technique. Three types of the transplastomic tobacco plants (pTTC, pTTMT and(More)
Although flavins, riboflavin (RF), FMN and FAD, are essential for primary and secondary metabolism in plants, the metabolic regulation of flavins is still largely unknown. Recently, we found that an Arabidopsis Nudix hydrolase, AtNUDX23, has FAD pyrophosphohydrolase activity and is distributed in plastids. Levels of RF and FAD but not FMN in Arabidopsis(More)
BACKGROUND Microalgae have recently been attracting attention as a potential platform for the production of biofuels. Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate, has been proposed as an attractive feedstock to produce biodiesel because it can produce large amounts of wax esters, consisting of medium-chain fatty acids and alcohols with 14:0 carbon(More)
The levels and redox states of pyridine nucleotides, such as NADP(H), regulate the cellular redox homeostasis, which is crucial for photooxidative stress response in plants. However, how they are controlled is poorly understood. An Arabidopsis Nudix hydrolase, AtNUDX19, was previously identified to have NADPH hydrolytic activity in vitro, suggesting this(More)
GDP-d-mannose (GDP-d-Man) is an important intermediate in ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis, cell wall synthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchoring in plants. Thus, the modulation of intracellular levels of GDP-d-Man could be important for maintaining various cellular processes. Here an Arabidopsis GDP-d-Man(More)
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