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We investigated changes of regional activation in the frontal cortices as assessed by changes of hemoglobin oxygenation during walking at 3 and 5 km/h and running at 9 km/h on a treadmill using a near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging technique. During the acceleration periods immediately preceded reaching the steady walking or running speed, the levels(More)
Neuroimaging studies have shown activity in the amygdala in response to facial expressions of emotion, but the specific role of the amygdala remains unknown. We hypothesized that the amygdala is involved in emotional but not basic sensory processing for facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the face directions of emotional expressions(More)
It has been proposed that motor imagery contains an element of sensory experiences (kinesthetic sensations), which is a substitute for the sensory feedback that would normally arise from the overt action. No evidence has been provided about whether kinesthetic sensation is centrally simulated during motor imagery. We psychophysically tested whether motor(More)
Humans can judge grating orientation by touch. Previous studies indicate that the extrastriate cortex is involved in tactile orientation judgments, suggesting that this area is related to visual imagery. However, it has been unclear which neural mechanisms are crucial for the tactile processing of orientation, because visual imagery is not always required(More)
The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we(More)
To investigate connectivity between primary somatosensory area (S1) and striate cortex (V1) in the blind, we used dynamic causal modeling of functional MRI acquired while 15 blind (9 early-onset and 6 late-onset) and 24 sighted subjects performed a tactile Braille discrimination task with their right hand. Five regions of interest were selected from either(More)
Neuroimaging studies suggest that the amygdala integrates emotional expression and gaze direction, but the findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that the dynamic facial expressions, which are more salient stimuli than static facial expressions are, would reveal the integration of emotional expression and gaze direction in amygdala activity. To test(More)
Dynamic facial expressions of emotion constitute natural and powerful media of communication between individuals. However, little is known about the neural substrate underlying the processing of dynamic facial expressions of emotion. We depicted the brain areas by using fMRI with 22 right-handed healthy subjects. The facial expressions are dynamically(More)
We evaluated the neural substrates of cross-modal binding and divided attention during audio-visual speech integration using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The subjects (n = 17) were exposed to phonemically concordant or discordant auditory and visual speech stimuli. Three different matching tasks were performed: auditory-auditory (AA),(More)
Eye gaze, hand-pointing gestures, and arrows automatically trigger attentional shifts. Although it has been suggested that common neural mechanisms underlie these three types of attentional shifts, this issue remains unsettled. We measured brain activity using fMRI while participants observed directional and non-directional stimuli, including eyes, hands,(More)