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The polymorphism of HLA-DRB1, -DRB3, and -DRB5 genes as well as magnetic resonance images of the brain and spinal cord were studied in 57 Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-three patients clinically displayed selective involvement of the optic nerve and spinal cord and were classified as having Asian-type MS. The other 34 patients had(More)
The effects of 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (R-THBP) on the central cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the Rhesus monkey brain were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) with the muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands (N-[11C]methyl-benztropine) and dopaminergic receptor ligands selective for D1, D2, and D3 subtypes(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disorder that is associated with a limited number of clinical biomarkers. In order to facilitate the diagnosis of IBD and assess its disease activity, we investigated the potential of novel multivariate indexes using statistical modeling of plasma amino acid concentrations (aminogram). (More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gut. Although the precise cause of IBD remains unknown, the most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis to date is that an aberrant immune response against the gut microbiota is triggered by environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host. The advancement of(More)
Notch signaling regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, contributing to the maintenance of diverse tissues including the intestinal epithelia. However, its role in tissue regeneration is less understood. Here, we show that Notch signaling is activated in a greater number of intestinal epithelial cells in the inflamed mucosa of colitis. Inhibition(More)
Intestinal epithelial cell-derived interleukin (IL)-7 functions as a pleiotropic and nonredundant cytokine in the human intestinal mucosa; however, the molecular basis of its production has remained totally unknown. We here showed that human intestinal epithelial cells both constitutively and when induced by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) produced IL-7, while(More)
The levels of pterin compounds in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ten neurologically normal and twenty autistic children were measured by two different liquid chromatographic systems, a conventional and a newly developed direct method. Among pterin compounds 7,8-dihydroneopterin (NH2) and 6R-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (R-BH4) levels in autistic(More)
It is now clear that functional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(R)) cells exist as part of the normal immune population and prevent the development of intestinal inflammation. We have recently shown that CD4(+)CD25(+) T(R) cells reside in the intestine and control intestinal homeostasis in humans and mice. In this study, we demonstrate that the TNF family(More)
  • Shin Makita, Takanori Kanai, +6 authors Mamoru Watanabe
  • 2007
It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only does active suppression by regulatory T (T(REG)) cells play an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also that its dysregulation of immune response leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this(More)
Although IL-7 has recently emerged as a key cytokine involved in controlling the homeostatic turnover and the survival of peripheral resting memory CD4(+) T cells, its potential to be sustained pathogenic CD4(+) T cells in chronic immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, still remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-7 is(More)