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Efferent fiber connections of the corpus and valvula cerebelli in the goldfish, Carassius auratus, were studied using an anterograde neural fiber tracing technique. Efferent targets of the corpus cerebelli are the posterior parvocellular preoptic nucleus, the ventromedial and ventrolateral thalamic nucleus, dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, periventricular(More)
Loss of kidney function underlies many renal diseases. Mammals can partly repair their nephrons (the functional units of the kidney), but cannot form new ones. By contrast, fish add nephrons throughout their lifespan and regenerate nephrons de novo after injury, providing a model for understanding how mammalian renal regeneration may be therapeutically(More)
In tetrapods, cerebellar efferent systems are mainly mediated via the cerebellar nuclei. In teleosts, the cerebellum lacks cerebellar nuclei. Instead, the cerebellar efferent neurons, termed eurydendroid cells, are arrayed within and below the ganglionic layer. Tracer injections outside of the cerebellum, which retrogradely label eurydendroid cells(More)
In teleosts, cerebellar efferent neurons, known as eurydendroid cells, are dispersed within the cerebellar cortex rather than coalescing into deep cerebellar nuclei. To clarify their morphology, eurydendroid cells were labeled retrogradely by biotinylated dextran amine injection into the base of the corpus cerebelli. Labeling allowed the cells to be(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was introduced as a good technique to evaluate structural abnormalities in the white matter. In this study, we used DTI to examine anisotropic changes of the pyramidal tracts displaced by chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-six patients with unilateral CSDH underwent DTI(More)
Although the basic swimming rhythm is created by central pattern generators (CPGs) located in each spinal segment, command signals from the brain should be indispensable for the activation of CPGs to initiate swimming. We hypothesized that the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicles (Nflm) is the midbrain locomotor region driving swimming rhythms in(More)
Primary vagal gustatory afferents utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter acting on AMPA/kainate receptors of second-order neurons. Some forms of ionotropic glutamate receptors permit passage of Ca++ ions upon activation by appropriate ligands. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) play a buffering role for regulating the concentration of intracellular calcium.(More)
Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Here, we report the initial development of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in zebrafish. The earliest Gly-ir cells were found in the hindbrain and rostral spinal cord by 20 h post-fertilization (hpf). Gly-ir cells in rhombomeres 5 and 6 that also(More)
Zebrafish is a good model for studying vertebrate development because of the availability of powerful genetic tools. We are interested in the study of the craniofacial skeletal structure of the zebrafish. For this purpose, we performed a gene trap screen and identified a Gal4 gene trap line, SAGFF(LF)134A. We then analyzed the expression pattern of(More)
The sense of taste is crucial in an animal's determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish, who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe, which is a(More)