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We examined whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was involved in orexin-induced grooming and face-washing behaviors, and whether orexin was involved in the stress reaction. Administration of alpha-helical CRF, CRF antagonist, alone had no behavioral effect, but it blocked the orexin-induced grooming and face-washing behaviors in rats. The level of(More)
The discovery of neuropeptides has resulted in an increased understanding of novel regulatory mechanisms of certain physiological phenomena. Here we identify a novel neuropeptide of 36 amino-acid residues in rat brain as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor FM-4/TGR-1, which was identified to date as the neuromedin U (NMU)(More)
A novel 36-amino acid neuropeptide, neuromedin S (NMS), has recently been identified in rat brain and has been shown to be an endogenous ligand for two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1. These receptors have been identified as neuromedin U (NMU) receptor type 1 and type 2, respectively. In this study, the physiological role of(More)
The effect of lateral cerebroventricular injection of the appetite-stimulating neuropeptide, orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), on the behavior of rats was investigated. An immediate increase in face washing activity was observed after injection of orexin A or orexin B, but not NPY. Orexin A had a more potent effect on face washing behavior than orexin B.(More)
Ghrelin, a gastrointestinal peptide, stimulates feeding when administered peripherally. Blockade of the vagal afferent pathway abolishes ghrelin-induced feeding, indicating that the vagal afferent pathway may be a route conveying orexigenic ghrelin signals to the brain. Here, we demonstrate that peripheral ghrelin signaling, which travels to the nucleus(More)
Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, has recently been isolated from the rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor. We have reported previously that central or peripheral administration of ghrelin stimulates food intake, and the secretion of GH and gastric acid in rats. In the present study, we investigated how much endogenous(More)
Bone remodeling, the function affected in osteoporosis, the most common of bone diseases, comprises two phases: bone formation by matrix-producing osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. The demonstration that the anorexigenic hormone leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay suggests that other molecules that affect energy(More)
A number of bioactive peptides are involved in regulating a wide range of animal behaviors, including food consumption. Vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent stimulator of appetitive behavior. Recently, Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) and short NPF (sNPF), the Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate NPY, were identified to characterize the functions of(More)
Antisera to orcokinin B, CCHamide 1, and CCHamide 2 recognize enteroendocrine cells in the midgut of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and its larvae. Although the antisera to CCHamide 1 and 2 are mutually cross-reactive, polyclonal mouse antisera raised to the C-terminals of their respective precursors allowed the identification of the two different(More)
There are many orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for which ligands have not yet been identified. One such GPCR is the bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3). BRS-3 plays a role in the onset of diabetes and obesity. GPCRs in invertebrates are similar to those in vertebrates. Two Drosophila GPCRs (CG30106 and CG14593) belong to the BRS-3 phylogenetic(More)