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The present study was designed to investigate whether the stoichiometry of octacalcium phosphate OCP affects its osteoconductive and immune response characteristics in rat bone marrow. Those characteristics of synthetic, well-grown OCP but with a non-stoichiometric composition were compared with those of a slightly hydrolyzed OCP (low crystalline OCP:(More)
Osteoclasts are involved in bone resorption, and its activation is considered one of the causes of osteoporosis. The pit assay is the principal method for evaluating osteoclast function by measuring hydroxyapatite resorption in vitro. However, the pit assay requires time and trained techniques, including the pit image analysis, and there is no other easy(More)
Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, such as biglycan, and their side chain sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), have been suggested to be involved in bone formation and mineralization processes. The present study was designed to investigate whether chondroitin sulfate (CS), one of the GAG, and its oversulfated structures coupled with bone morphogenetic(More)
Schizophyllan is a natural beta-(1-->3)-d-glucan existing as a triple helix in water and as a single chain in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). As we already reported, when a homo-polynucleotide [e.g., poly(dA) or poly(C)] is added to the schizophyllan/DMSO solution and subsequently DMSO is exchanged for water, the single chain of schizophyllan forms a complex with(More)
It has been suggested that macrophages and multinucleated giant cells are responsible for phagocytosis of resorbable calcium phosphate (CaP) compounds implanted in bone defects. However, function of macrophages around the CaP, if continuously exposed to various concentration of extracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)](o)), is still unknown. The present study(More)
Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been advocated to be a precursor of biological apatite crystals in bones and teeth. Our previous studies showed that synthetic OCP stimulates bone regeneration, followed by the progressive conversion of OCP into hydroxyapatite (HA), when implanted in bone defects. However, the precise mechanism to induce the osteogenic(More)
The present study was designed to determine whether the osteoconductivity of octacalcium phosphate-collagen (OCP/Col) composite can be improved by controlling the granule size of OCP. The granules of synthetic OCP, with diameters in the range of 53 to 300, 300 to 500, and 500 to 1000 μm, were used as an inorganic source of composite materials mixed with(More)
Synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has a potential to enhance new bone formation and exhibits biodegradable characteristics when implanted in experimentally created bone defects. The precise mechanisms of OCP biodegradation remain unclear, though histological observations have revealed that bone-resorbing osteoclasts appear and resorb implanted OCP. To(More)
Schizophyllan is a natural beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan existing as a triple helix in water and as a single chain in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), respectively. As we already reported, when some homo-phosphodiester polynucleotide (for example, poly(dA) or poly(C)) is added to the schizophyllan/DMSO solution and subsequently DMSO is exchanged for water, the single(More)
Antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODNs) are applied to silence a particular gene, and this approach is one of the potential gene therapies. However, naked oligonucleotides are easy to be degraded or absorbed in biological condition. Therefore, we need a carrier to deliver AS ODNs. This paper presents galactose moieties that were conjugated to the side chain of(More)