Takahiro Tsukahara

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In 1993, Malawi stopped treating patients with chloroquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria because of a high treatment failure rate (58%). In 1998, the in vitro resistance rate to chloroquine was 3% in the Salima District of Malawi; in 2000, the in vivo resistance rate was 9%. We assayed two genetic mutations implicated in chloroquine resistance (N86Y in(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium falciparum malaria resistant to chloroquine and pyrimethamine originated in limited foci and migrated to Africa. It remains unresolved whether P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine, which is conferred by mutations in dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), evolved following a similar pattern. METHODS The dhps locus of 893 P. falciparum(More)
AIMS We assessed the disposition of oral amodiaquine (AQ) and CYP2C8 polymorphism in 20 children with falciparum malaria. METHODS AQ and DEAQ concentrations were determined with SPE-HPLC method. CYP2C8 genotypes were assessed by PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS AQ was not detectable beyond day 3 postdose. Cmax for DEAQ was reached in 3.0 days. The mean values(More)
Pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has previously been shown to have emerged once in Southeast Asia, from where it spread to Africa. Pyrimethamine resistance in this parasite is known to be conferred by mutations in the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr). We have analyzed polymorphisms in dhfr as well as microsatellite haplotypes(More)
To overcome the declining efficacy of the 4-aminoquinolines in Papua New Guinea, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) was combined with the 4-aminoquinolines as the first line treatment for falciparum malaria since 2000. To assess how this change had affected SP resistant gene polymorphisms, we determined allele frequencies of dhfr and dhps in 113 Plasmodium(More)
The colonization of Oceania occurred in two waves. By 32,000 BP, humans had reached New Guinea and settled all intervisible islands east to the Solomon Islands. Around 3,500 BP, a distinct intrusive group from Southeast Asia reached coastal New Guinea, integrated their components with indigenous resources, and gave rise to the Lapita Cultural Complex.(More)
Malawi changed its national policy for malaria treatment in 1993, becoming the first country in Africa to replace chloroquine by sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine combination (SP) as the first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria. Seven years after this change, we investigated the prevalence of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)(More)
In Plasmodium falciparum, resistance to chloroquine (CQ) is conferred by a K to T mutation at amino acid position 76 (K76T) in the P. falciparum CQ transporter (PfCRT). To date, at least 15 pfcrt genotypes, which are represented by combinations of five amino acids at positions 72-76, have been described in field isolates from various endemic regions. To(More)