Learn More
Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key receptors in the modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Here we have determined three different crystal structures of the extracellular ligand-binding region of mGluR1--in a complex with glutamate and in two unliganded forms. They all showed disulphide-linked(More)
Smooth pursuit and vestibularly induced eye movements interact to maintain the accuracy of eye movements in space (i.e., gaze). To understand the role played by the frontal eye fields in pursuit-vestibular interactions, we examined activity of 110 neurons in the periarcuate areas of head-stabilized Japanese monkeys during pursuit eye movements and passive(More)
The interactions between fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors have important roles in mediating mesenchymal-epithelial cell interactions during embryogenesis. In particular, Fgf10 is predicted to function as a regulator of brain, lung and limb development on the basis of its spatiotemporal expression pattern in the developing embryo. To(More)
Low-temperature germination is one of the major determinants for stable stand establishment in the direct seeding method in temperate regions, and at high altitudes of tropical regions. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling low-temperature germinability in rice were identified using 122 backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between(More)
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) is localized to focal adhesions and tyrosine phosphorylated by the engagement of beta 1 integrins. However, it is unclear how pp125FAK is linked to integrin molecules. We demonstrate that pp125FAK is directly associated with paxillin, a 68-kD cytoskeleton protein. The COOH-terminal domain of pp125FAK spanning FAK residues(More)
TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), also called WWTR1 (WW domain containing transcription regulator 1), is a 14-3-3-binding molecule homologous to Yes-associated protein. TAZ acts as a coactivator for several transcription factors as well as a modulator of membrane-associated PDZ domain-containing proteins, but its (patho)physiological(More)
The intramembrane cleavage of beta-amyloid precursor protein by gamma-secretase is the final step in the generation of amyloid beta-protein. A 59- or 57-residue C-terminal fragment called CTFgamma is produced concomitantly. Putative CTFgamma generated in rat brain membrane preparations was purified and sequenced. Instead of CTFgamma, shorter 50- and(More)