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We determined the structures of long (L)-wavelength-sensitive and middle (M)-wavelength-sensitive opsin gene array of 58 male chimpanzees and we investigated relative sensitivity to red and green lights by electroretinogram flicker photometry. One subject had protanomalous color vision, while others had normal color vision. Unlike in humans, a polymorphic(More)
Microchiroptera have diversified into many species whose size and the shapes of the complicated ear and nose have been adapted to their echolocation abilities. Their speciation processes, and intra- and interspecies relationships are still under discussion. Here we report on the geographical variation of Japanese Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. cornutus(More)
Although cooperative interactions between growth factors and integrins, cell surface receptors for extracellular matrices (ECM), have been reported, little is known about the interaction between hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and integrin in hepatoma cells. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of integrin on the proliferation of hepatoma cells(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are capable of processing and presenting exogenous antigens using MHC class I molecules. This pathway is called antigen cross-presentation and plays an important role in the stimulation of naïve CD8(+) T cells for infectious and tumor immunity. Our previous studies in DC2.4 cells and bone marrow-derived DCs revealed that exogenously(More)
SUMMARY We developed a new method for characterizing molecular distribution in very thin liquid crystal layer (5–40 nm) evaporated onto rubbed polyimide film used by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD). The diffraction peaks corresponding to intermolecular correlation perpendicular to longitudinal axis of liquid crystal molecule and the clear(More)
This paper describes application of the hysteresis control to the single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) power supply circuit to realize high performance, low cost and small size power supply circuits. The SIDOs can realize small number of inductors (hence small size and low cost) in the system where multiple power supplies are required, but their performance(More)