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BACKGROUND CONTEXT The effects of aging and spinal degeneration on the mechanical properties of spinal ligaments are still unknown, although there have been several studies demonstrating those of normal spinal ligaments. PURPOSE To investigate the mechanical properties of the human posterior spinal ligaments in human lumbar spine, and their relation to(More)
The Japan Spine Research Society carried out a nationwide survey on complications of the spine, enrolling a total of 16 157 patients who had undergone spine surgery in 196 institutes in the 1-year period from January to December 2001. Diseases, surgical procedures, and complications were surveyed in detail. Forty-nine percent of patients were aged 60 years(More)
Articular cartilage defects that do not repair spontaneously induce osteoarthritic changes in joints over a long period of observation. In this study, we examined the usefulness of transplanting culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cells into osteochondral defects of joints with cartilage defects. First, we performed experiments on rabbits and up on(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have fragile bones. Osteoporosis is a major concern in scoliosis surgery. Our aim was to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) in PWS patients and to verify the efficacy of and scoliosis deterioration with growth hormone (GH) administration for osteoporosis. METHODS We followed 148 PWS patients who(More)
[1] Ice-associated phytoplankton blooms in the southeastern Bering Sea can critically impact the food web structure, from lower tropic level production to marine fisheries. By coupling pelagic and sea ice algal components, our 1-D ecosystem model successfully reproduced the observed ice-associated blooms in 1997 and 1999 at the NOAA/PMEL mooring M2. The(More)
Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT The prevalence of scoliosis in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is high; however, the prevalence of PWS is rare, with one person in 10,000 to 20,000 affected. The etiology and characteristics of scoliosis associated with PWS remain unidentified. In addition, it is believed that the speedup of growth associated with growth hormone (GH)(More)
In the Southern Ocean, zooplankton research has focused on krill and macro-zooplankton despite the high densities of micro- and meso-zooplankton. We investigated their community structure in relation to different sea ice conditions around Japan’s Syowa Station in Lützow-Holm Bay, in the summers of 2011 and 2012. Zooplankton samples were collected using(More)
The molecular machinery of the cyanobacterial circadian clock oscillator consists of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB and KaiC, which interact with each other to generate circadian oscillations in the presence of ATP (the in vitro KaiABC clock oscillator). KaiB comprises four subunits organized as a dimer of dimers. Our previous study suggested that, on(More)
STUDY DESIGN Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical outcomes of anterior and posterior spinal fusion (APSF) using a fibular strut autograft (FSAG) and to investigate the morphological changes in the reconstructed spinal column of dystrophic deformities in neurofibromatosis (NF)-1. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA APSF is desirable for(More)