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Transcription of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Notch signaling molecules oscillates with 2-hour cycles, and this oscillation is important for coordinated somite segmentation. However, the molecular mechanism of such oscillation remains to be determined. Here, we show that serum treatment of cultured cells induces cyclic expression of both mRNA and protein of(More)
In systems driven away from equilibrium, the velocity correlation function and the linear-response function to a small perturbation force do not satisfy the fluctuation-response relation (FRR) due to the lack of detailed balance in contrast to equilibrium systems. In this Letter, an equality between an extent of the FRR violation and the rate of energy(More)
The fluctuation-response relation is a fundamental relation that is applicable to systems near equilibrium. On the other hand, when a system is driven far from equilibrium, this relation is violated in general because the detailed-balance condition is not satisfied in nonequilibrium systems. Even in this case, it has been found that for a class of Langevin(More)
A theory for obtaining a waveform for the effective entrainment of a weakly forced oscillator is presented. Phase model analysis is combined with calculus of variation to derive a waveform with which entrainment of an oscillator is achieved with a minimum power forcing signal. Optimal waveforms are calculated from the phase response curve and a solution to(More)
In single-molecule protein experiments, the observable variables are restricted within a small fraction of the entire degrees of freedom. Therefore, to investigate the physical nature of proteins in detail, we always need to estimate the hidden internal structure referring only to the accessible degrees of freedom. We formulate this problem on the basis of(More)
A direct connection between the magnitude of the violation of the fluctuation response relation (FRR) and the rate of energy dissipation is presented in terms of field variables of nonequilibrium systems. Here, we consider the density field of a colloidal suspension either in a relaxation process or in a nonequilibrium steady state driven by an external(More)
Evolution of the spatial arrangement of cells in a primary culture of cardiac tissue derived from newborn rats was studied experimentally over extended period. It was found that cells attract each other spontaneously to form a clustered structure over the timescale of several days. These clusters exhibit spontaneous rhythmic contraction and have been(More)
We demonstrate that a Langevin equation that describes the motion of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions can be exactly transformed to a special equation that explicitly exhibits the response of the velocity to a time dependent perturbation. This transformation is constructed on the basis of an operator formulation originally used in(More)
In various kinds of cultured cells, it has been reported that the membrane potential exhibits fluctuations with long-term correlations, although the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. A cardiac muscle cell culture serves as an excellent experimental system to investigate this phenomenon because timings of excitations can be determined over an(More)