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Inwardly rectifying potassium (K+) channels (Kir) in Müller cells, the dominant glial cells in the retina, are supposed to be responsible for the spatial buffering action of K+ ions. The molecular properties and subcellular localization of Müller cell Kir channels in rat and rabbit retinas were examined by using electrophysiological, molecular biological,(More)
Cochlear endolymph has a highly positive potential of approximately +80 mV. This so-called endocochlear potential (EP) is essential for hearing. Although pivotal roles of K+ channels in the formation of EP have been suggested, the types and distribution of K+ channels in cochlea have not been characterized. Because EP was depressed by vascular perfusion of(More)
In cathepsin D-deficient (CD-/-) and cathepsins B and L double-deficient (CB-/-CL-/-) mice, abnormal vacuolar structures accumulate in neurons of the brains. Many of these structures resemble autophagosomes in which part of the cytoplasm is retained but their precise nature and biogenesis remain unknown. We show here how autophagy contributes to the(More)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral nerve disorder. The causative gene for axonal type CMT2E has been identified as neurofilament light (NF-L) chain. Using cultured cells and in vitro assays, we analyzed the filament formation ability of Pro22 CMT mutant proteins of NF-L, P22S and P22T. NF-L Pro22 mutant proteins formed(More)
The structural machinery contributing to the blood-brain barrier in elasmobranchs has been examined mainly using freeze-fracture techniques. Capillary endothelial cells, which show local aggregations of pinocytotic vesicles and infrequent fenestrations, are connected by poorly developed tight junctions. Astrocytic processes investing the capillary are(More)
We previously reported that myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein (MOBP) was abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) myelin, and shared several characteristics with myelin basic protein (MBP). In particular, a cluster of positively charged amino acids was considered to facilitate compaction of the cytoplasmic face of the myelin(More)
The COOH-terminal tail of mammalian neurofilament heavy subunit (NF-H), the largest neurofilament subunit, contains 44-51 lysine-serine-proline repeats that are nearly stoichiometrically phosphorylated after assembly into neurofilaments in axons. Phosphorylation of these repeats has been implicated in promotion of radial growth of axons, control of nearest(More)
The phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal "tail" domains of the neurofilament (NF) subunits, NF heavy (NF-H) and NF medium (NF-M) subunits, have been proposed to regulate axon radial growth, neurofilament spacing, and neurofilament transport rate, but direct in vivo evidence is lacking. Because deletion of the tail domain of NF-H did not alter these axonal(More)
Neurofilaments are essential for acquisition of normal axonal calibers. Several lines of evidence have suggested that neurofilament-dependent structuring of axoplasm arises through an "outside-in" signaling cascade originating from myelinating cells. Implicated as targets in this cascade are the highly phosphorylated KSP domains of neurofilament subunits(More)
To find out what causes differences in phosphorylation states in neurofilaments (NF), we selected two types of dendrite, one provided with very few NFs (Purkinje cell) and the other with relatively many (anterior horn cell). We examined these with four monoclonal antibodies selected by the Western blot analysis, two (NE14 and SMI31) recognizing only(More)