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Membranes allow the compartmentalization of biochemical processes and are therefore fundamental to life. The conservation of the cellular membrane, combined with its accessibility to secreted proteins, has made it a common target of factors mediating antagonistic interactions between diverse organisms. Here we report the discovery of a diverse superfamily(More)
BACKGROUND The type VI secretion system (T6SS) has emerged as a protein secretion system important to several gram-negative bacterial species. One of the common components of the system is Hcp, initially described as a hemolysin co-regulated protein in a serotype O17 strain of Vibrio cholerae. Homologs to V. cholerae hcp genes have been found in all(More)
In large classes, teachers find it difficult to care about the personality and ability of individual students. One of the ways to grasp the learning state of students is to conduct a number of short tests during every class. If a system can automatically give the appropriate instructions and teaching materials to individual students based on the test(More)
Many Gram-negative bacteria rely on a type VI secretion system (T6SS) to infect eukaryotic cells or to compete against other microbes. Common to these systems is the presence of two conserved proteins, in Vibrio cholerae denoted VipA and VipB, which have been shown to interact in many clinically relevant pathogens. In this study, mutagenesis of a defined(More)
— In this paper, we propose the concept of a " mobile microscope ". This is a hand-held microscope that can be used for observation in various places. Because microscopes which have a small observable area and are vulnerable to vibrations, images from hand-held microscopes are usually blurred. We propose a method of stabilizing images from a microscope(More)
We have proposed a novel computation framework called Equivalent Transformation (ET). The ET framework is a rewriting system in which computation is executed by rewriting rules. Rewriting rules of the ET framework are called Equivalent Transformation Rules (ETRs). The theory of ET guarantees the correctness of the computation by ETRs. Multi-head ETRs which(More)