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Applicability of a Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy (TPS) and a Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) for detection of tulobuterol (TBR) crystals in transdermal patches was investigated. Because TBR has high permeability in dermis, crystalline TBR in patch matrices contributes to controlling the release rate of TBR from a matrix. Therefore, crystalline TBR is one of(More)
Microscopic Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Mapping (MLRSM) technique was used to investigate the distribution of tulobuterol (TBR) crystals in transdermal tapes. TBR is one of suitable compounds for the transdermal pharmaceuticals because it has high permeability into skin. In case of TBR transdermal tapes, some commercial products also contain TBR crystals(More)
In long-haul wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmission systems, signals with shorter and longer wavelengths have self-phase modulation group-velocitydispersion (SPM-GVD) penalty caused by to the dispersion slope even after the dispersion-compensation at the receiver has been optimized. As a countermeasure, we have already proposed both(More)
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