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The projection from the thalamic centre médian-parafascicular (CM-Pf) complex to the caudate nucleus and putamen forms a massive striatal input system in primates. We examined the activity of 118 neurons in the CM and 62 neurons in the Pf nuclei of the thalamus and 310 tonically active neurons (TANs) in the striatum in awake behaving macaque monkeys and(More)
The centre médian-parafascicular (CM-Pf) complex is located at the posterior intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus and forms part of the nonspecific thalamocortical projection system and the internal circuit of the basal ganglia. However, the functional roles of this complex remain to be fully elucidated. Here we have examined whether the CM-Pf complex is(More)
Activity in several areas of the human brain and the monkey brain increases when a subject anticipates events associated with a reward, implicating a role for bias of decision and action. However, in real life, events do not always appear as expected, and we must choose an undesirable action. More than half of the neurons in the monkey centromedian (CM)(More)
Recent physiological and tract tracing studies revealed tight coupling of the centre médian and parafascicular nuclei (the CM-Pf complex), which are posterior intralaminar nuclei (ILN) of the thalamus, with basal ganglia circuits. These nuclei have previously been classified as part of the ascending reticulo-thalamo-cortical activating system, with studies(More)
To study how the interaction between orbitofrontal (OFC) and rhinal (Rh) cortices influences the judgment of reward size, we reversibly disconnected these regions using hM4Di-DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug). Repeated inactivation reduced sensitivity to differences in reward size in two monkeys. These results suggest that(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have remarkably reduced levels of dopaminergic biomarkers in the caudal putamen. However, the relationship between motor impairments and the localization of intrastriatal dopaminergic degeneration in monkey PD models remains unclear. To identify the striatal areas with dopaminergic dysfunction responsible for motor(More)
Decision making and action selection are influenced by the values of benefit, reward, cost, and punishment. Mapping of the positive and negative values of external events and actions occurs mainly via the discharge rates of neurons in the cerebral cortex, the amygdala, and the basal ganglia. However, it remains unclear how the reward values of external(More)
Motivation is usually inferred from the likelihood or the intensity with which behavior is carried out. It is sensitive to external factors (e.g., the identity, amount, and timing of a rewarding outcome) and internal factors (e.g., hunger or thirst). We trained macaque monkeys to perform a nonchoice instrumental task (a sequential red-green color(More)
Subregions of prefrontal cortex are important for estimating reward values and using these values to guide behavior. The present studies directly tested whether orbital prefrontal cortex (O-PFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (L-PFC) are necessary for evaluating trial-to-trial changes in the reward values predicted by visual cues. We have compared intact(More)
To study roles of cortico-basal ganglia loops in action planning, we examined interactions between the activities of simultaneously recorded neurons in the striatum of monkeys performing sequence motor tasks by cross-correlation analysis. Serial activation occurred between projection neurons in a motor sequence-dependent manner, and was in the direction of(More)