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1. Benzodiazepines potentiate morphine antinociception at the spinal level via GABAergic mechanisms. At the supraspinal level, the inhibitory effect of midazolam on morphine antinociception cannot be easily explained by GABAA receptor activation. Since excitatory amino acids play a role in central transmission, we investigated the effect of dizocilpine (MK(More)
The antinociception induced by i.t. or i.c.v. administration of endomorphins is mediated via mu-opioid receptors. However, although endomorphins do not have an appreciable affinity for kappa-opioid receptors, pretreatment with the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine markedly reduces the antinociceptive response to i.c.v. or i.t. administered(More)
To determine if different subtypes of mu-opioid receptors were involved in antinociception induced by endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, the effect of pretreatment with various mu-opioid receptor antagonists beta-funaltrexamine, naloxonazine and 3-methylnaltrexone on the inhibition of the paw-withdrawal induced by endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 given(More)
The authors investigated the effects of spinal and supraspinal administration of the benzodiazepine receptor agonist midazolam alone and with opioids on tests of nociception (tail-flick and hot-plate tests) and motor function (catalepsy) in rats. At the spinal level, the dose-response curves for peak effect and area under the curve for morphine were shifted(More)
The mechanisms for the combined antinociceptive effect of midazolam and morphine administered at spinal (intrathecal, i.t.) and supraspinal (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v.) levels were investigated in rats. Nociceptive test results showed that co-administration of midazolam and morphine at the spinal level potentiated morphine-induced antinociception, and(More)
The multidimensional diffusion model for computer animation of diffuse ink painting opens up a new dimension in painting. In diffuse painting final image is a result of ink diffusion in absorbent paper. A straightforward diffusion model however is unable to provide very specific features of real diffuse painting. In particular , it can not explain the(More)
We investigated by means of behavioral and neurochemical studies the role of the nerve terminal L-type voltage sensitive Ca(2)+ channel on dopamine (DA) release. Microinjection of Bay K 8644 (BAYK), an L-type Ca(2)+ channel stimulant, into the rat caudate putamen increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior in a dose-dependent manner, whereas(More)
PURPOSE Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the(More)
Endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-PheNH(2)) was discovered as an endogenous ligand for the mu-opioid receptor. The physiological function of endomorphin-2 as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator may cease through the rapid enzymatic process in the synapse of brain, as for other neuropeptides. The present study was conducted to examine the metabolism of(More)