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Axon specification triggers the polarization of neurons and requires the localized destabilization of filamentous actin. Here we show that plasma membrane ganglioside sialidase (PMGS) asymmetrically accumulates at the tip of one neurite of the unpolarized rat neuron, inducing actin instability. Suppressing PMGS activity blocks axonal generation, whereas(More)
Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of recessive familial Parkinson disease (PD). Parkin has been initially characterized as an ubiquitin E3 ligase, but the pathological relevance of this activity remains uncertain. Recently, an impressive amount of evidence has accumulated that parkin is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial(More)
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder presenting variable combinations of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, corticospinal and autonomic dysfunction. Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN)-immunopositive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) represent the neuropathological hallmark of MSA, and tubulin polymerization promoting protein(More)
Many neurodegenerative diseases share a common pathological feature: the deposition of amyloid-like fibrils composed of misfolded proteins. Emerging evidence suggests that these proteins may spread from cell-to-cell and encourage the propagation of neurodegeneration in a prion-like manner. Here, we demonstrated that α-synuclein (αSYN), a principal culprit(More)
Mutations in alpha-synuclein cause some cases of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanism by which alpha-synuclein promotes degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons is unknown. We report that human neural cells expressing mutant alpha-synuclein (A30P and A53T) have higher plasma membrane ion permeability. The higher ion permeability caused by(More)
Hyposmia is one of the cardinal early symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulating clinical and pathological evidence suggests that dysfunction of the olfactory-related cortices may be responsible for the impaired olfactory processing observed in PD; however, there are no clear data showing a direct association between altered brain metabolism and(More)
The intracellular deposition of misfolded proteins is a common neuropathological hallmark of most neurodegenerative disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that these pathogenic proteins may spread to neighboring cells and induce the propagation of neurodegeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that α-synuclein (αSYN), a major constituent of(More)
Mutations in vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35) have been linked to familial Parkinson's disease (PD). VPS35, a component of the retromer, mediates the retrograde transport of cargo from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network. Here we showed that retromer depletion increases the lysosomal turnover of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, thereby affecting the(More)
Dementia is one of the most debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease. A recent longitudinal study suggests that up to 80% of patients with Parkinson's disease will eventually develop dementia. Despite its clinical importance, the development of dementia is still difficult to predict at early stages. We previously identified olfactory dysfunction as one(More)
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is a major component of inclusion bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. To clarify the possible roles of alpha-syn in the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, we have established a novel cellular model based on the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells that overexpress alpha-syn. In the(More)